Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures (Law No. 107 of 1998)
This Law is one of the two key climate laws in Japan along with the Energy Conservation Law. The purpose of the Law is to reduce emissions of GHGs derived from anthropogenic activities. GHGs are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, HFC, PFC and sulphur hexafluoride. The Council of Ministers for Global Environmental Conservation is established under the Law. The Council is chaired by the Prime Minister, and vice-chairmen are the Chief Cabinet Secretary, Minister of the Environment and Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry. Other members consist of all ministers other than vice-chairmen.
Designated emitters, whose workplaces contain more than 1,500kL of oil equivalent of energy annually, are mandated to develop the Plan for Global Warming Countermeasure. While there is no reduction obligation under this law, annual emission of GHGs are reported to the Minister in charge. Emission reporting under this framework equals that of the reporting under the Energy Conservation Law.
This Law stipulates that the State is responsible for implementing necessary measures to introduce Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in Japan. It adds that examination and discussion of the design and the utilization of ETS starts upon the enactment of this Law.
This Law also provides that the national and local governments are responsible for development and implementation of plans to reduce GHG emissions.
The National Government adopted the Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures in May 2016, with the explicit aim to achieve the mid-term target set in Japan’s INDC (2015) 26% GHG emissions reduction by 2030 (baseline 2013). In addition, the Plan also sets a long term goal of 80% GHG emissions reduction by 2050.
Prefectural and municipal governments are also required to create local plans to reduce GHG emissions. The plans should include:
• Duration of the plan
• Measures and actions intended for implementation
• Promotion of solar PV, wind and other renewable energies
• Measures and actions taken by business professionals and citizens to reduce GHG emission
• Promotion of public transport use, conservation of green space and other GHG emission reduction measures