Electricity Market Law (No. 6446) introducing tax deductions for renewables ( 2013 )

This Law aims to ensure the establishment of a financially sound, stable and transparent electricity market operating in a competitive environment under, and subject to, private law provisions. It also aims to ensure the independent regulation and supervision of the private market for purposes of providing sufficient, good quality, uninterrupted, low cost and environment-friendly electricity…read more

Act No. 5627 on Energy Efficiency ( 2007 )

The purpose of this Act is to increase energy efficiency, avoid waste, ease the burden of energy costs on the economy and protect the environment. It aims to do this by increasing and promoting energy efficiency in energy generation, transmission, distribution and consumption phases at industrial establishments, buildings, power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks…read more

Act No. 5686 on Geothermal Resources And Mineral Waters ( 2007 )

In order to increase the production and consumption of geothermal energy 10-fold, the Act was passed as a specific act to this renewable source in addition to the Act on Renewable Energy (see flagship legislation). The Act outlines the procedure, elements and sanctions for issuing transferring and revoking operation licences, auditing the actions of firms…read more

Act No. 5346 on Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purposes of Generating Electrical Energy (Renewable Energy Law) ( 2005 )

This Act (also known as the Renewable Energy Law) encourages the use of renewable energy. This law encompasses the procedures and principles of the conservation of renewable energy resource areas, certification of the energy generated from these sources, and use of these sources. The measurable objective is to increase the amount of electricity produced by…read more

Act No. 5403 on Soil Conservation and Land Use ( 2005 )

This legislation has the purpose of protecting and improving soil quality, especially in areas deemed at risk of degradation due to climate change. It amends a number of existing laws and regulations by promoting sustainability and adaptation to climate change. The Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs is tasked with undertaking necessary measures by co-operating…read more

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2017-2023 (High Planning Council decision number 2017/22 ) ( 2018 )

The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the 2017-2023 is a broad document released in Official Gazette 30289 and targeting energy savings in buildings and services, energy, transport, industry and technology and agriculture. The Action Plan aims to save 23.9 Million-Ton Equivalent of Petroleum from Turkey’s primary energy consumption, via a strategy which includes $10.9 billion of…read more

National Renewable Energy Action Plan ( 2014 )

The plan proposes increasing the country's existing renewable energy generation capacity to 61 GW by 2023; mostly in the forms of hydro, wind and solar generation.…read more

Energy Efficiency Strategy Paper 2012-2023 ( 2012 )

This ‘strategy paper’ is an executive policy annex to the 2007 Energy Efficiency Law. The Paper was approved by the Higher Planning Council (YPK) and aims to detail a set of federal policies that decrease energy intensity (the amount of energy consumed per capita) by at least 20% by the year 2023. There should be…read more

Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 ( 2011 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Action Plan sets out a road map with short, medium and long-term plans for the fight against climate change encompassing all sectors of the economy. Overall the plan involves providing climate-friendly goals that underpin Turkey's growth. These include: strengthening the existing information structure on low carbon progress, and developing financing models for the transition…read more

Decree-Laws 644 and 648 on the organisation and duties of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning ( 2011 )

Decree Law No. 644 sets out the organisation and duties of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning . Article 2.b) charges the Ministry to identify the principles and policies for the prevention of environmental pollution through the protection and improvement of the environment, to develop standards and criteria, to prepare programs; to create pollution…read more

Turkey’s National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan ( 2011 / Adaptation Framework )

This strategy provides Turkey with guidelines, framework goals and sectoral targets to pursue climate change adaptation. It focuses in particular on water resources management, agriculture and food security, ecosystem services, natural disaster risk management, public health and cross cutting issues.…read more

Climate Change Strategy 2010-2020 ( 2010 )

The Strategy sketches Turkey's vision in addressing multiple aspects of climate change, and serves as a basis for the National Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023. The Strategy puts forth a set of policies to address those in the short-, medium-, and long term for reduction of emissions from the following sectors: energy, industry, transportation, waste, LULUCF.…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Up to 21% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the BAU level

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

2.3 million hectares of land to be afforested and rehabilitated by 2012 against a 2008 baseline

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 2008 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

181.4 million tonnes of carbon to be absorbed by forest areas in addition to carbon absorbed by existing sinks by 2020 against a 2008 baseline

Preservation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2008 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Increase the amount of carbon sequestered in forests by 15% of the 2007 value by 2020 (14,500 Gg in 2007, 16,700 Gg in 2020) by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

Afforestation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Identify the quantity of carbon stored in settlement areas in 2012, and increase stored carbon 3% by 2020 through green planting by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Afforestation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Identify the existing carbon stock in wetlands in 2012, and maintain the level until 2020

Preservation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Identify the amount of sequestered carbon in pastures and meadows in 2012, and increase carbon stock 3% by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Afforestation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Reduce deforestation and forest damage by 20% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

Preservation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Increase the amount of sequestered carbon as a result of agricultural forestry activities by 10% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

Carbon Sequestration | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reduce losses to 15% by 2030

Supply-Side Efficiency: Grid/Energy Loss Reduction | Target year: 2030

At least 20% of the annual energy demand of new buildings met via renewable energy resources by 2017

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2017 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Reach 16 GW wind electricity generation capacity by 2030

Renewable Energy: Wind | Target year: 2030

600 MW of geothermal electricity generation capacity by 2023

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Reach 10 GW solar electricity generation capacity by 2030

Renewable Energy: Solar | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

20,000 MW of wind electricity generation capacity by 2023

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Full utilisation of technical and economic hydroelectric potential by 2023

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

30% share of renewable energy in total electricity generation by 2023

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Reduce primary energy intensity by 10% compared to 2008 by 2015 against a 2008 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2008 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Reduce nationwide electricity distribution losses to 8% by 2023 by 2023

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

7% less GHG emissions than under the Reference Scenario by 2020

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

76% of municipal waste to be disposed at 104 new sanitary landfill facilities by 2012

Waste Management | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2010 / Executive)

Dispose 100% of municipal wastes in new integrated solid waste disposal facilities by 2023

Waste Management | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Reduce the quantity of biodegradable wastes admitted to landfill sites by 75% in weight until 2015, by 50% until 2018 and by 35% until 2025 against a 2005 baseline

Waste Reduction | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Decrease annual energy consumption in the buildings and premises of public institutions by 10% until 2015 and by 20% until 2023 by 2023

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Reduce greenhouse gas emissions in new settlements by at least 10% per settlement in comparison to existing settlements by 2023

General | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2011 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Despite strong economic growth during the past decade and its membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Turkey is considered a “middle income” country, a point that the country stresses in international discussions concerning climate change and mitigation of emissions.

Referencing historically low GHG emissions, Turkey has declined to make any commitment to reduce GHGs based on any specific reference year. Reducing emissions is viewed as a threat to further economic expansion. Nonetheless Turkey plans to limit future GHG emissions through measures that will not compromise its sustainable development and poverty reduction priorities. It has also stated that it will carry out mitigation activities in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner, in accordance with its national programmes and strategies.

Due to disputes over Turkey’s mitigation obligations in comparison to other OECD member countries, Turkey was deleted from the list of Annex-II countries under the UNFCCC at the Seventh Conference of Parties (COP7) in Marrakesh in 2001. Turkey became a member to the Convention in 2004 and ratified the UNFCCC by law in 2003 after a Decision that invited all member countries to recognise the special circumstances of Turkey relative to other Annex-I countries. Parliament endorsed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and officially became a party to the Protocol in 2009.

In 2001, the Co-ordination Board on Climate Change (CBCC) was established. The CBCC was restructured in 2004 after Turkey became a party to the UNFCCC and in 2010 its remit was expanded with the participation of new members. In 2013 the CBCC was merged with the Co-ordination Board on Air Emissions, and renamed the Co-ordination Board on Climate Change and Air Management. The Board, composed of relevant ministries and industry representatives, determines the policies, measures and activities to be pursued related to climate change. Turkey has put into effect policies and measures to tackle climate change in the energy, agriculture, forestry, transportation, industry and waste sectors.

Energy Supply

The energy sector is the major source of Turkey’s GHG emissions and so the main focus of mitigation and adaptation measures. Hydro-power, wind energy and other renewables have been incentivised since 2005 with the passing of The Act on Renewable Energy. The law obliges energy providers to buy a certain percentage of electricity from renewable sources, as well as ensuring that small scale and domestic renewable producers have access to the grid and can sell any surplus electricity.

Increasing the production of geothermal energy is a government priority and as such legislation incentivising and regulating the market was passed in 2007. Turkey is also retrofitting power plants and using low-carbon fuels.

Energy Demand

After passing the Act on Renewable Energy, legislative efforts turned towards energy efficiency, and in 2007 the Act on Energy Efficiency was passed with the aim of avoiding 75 million CO2-e tonnes of emissions by 2020. The Act on Energy Efficiency contains a regulation that lays down principles and procedures for standardized energy performance in residential, commercial and service buildings. In accordance with the By-Law on Heat Insulation in Buildings published in 2006, buildings are insulated to reduce heating and cooling needs.

Carbon pricing

Although Turkey cannot benefit from the market-based flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, voluntary carbon projects have been developed and implemented. By January 2013, Turkey had 218 registered projects in the voluntary carbon market, leading to annual GHG reductions of 16.2 million tons of CO2-e.

Transportation

Initiatives being launched in the transportation sector include enhancing the quality of motor vehicle fuels, increasing the use of biofuels and new engine technologies, withdrawing old vehicles from use, expanding metro and light rail networks in big cities in order to encourage mass transportation, the Marmaray Sub-sea Tunnel Project in Istanbul connecting the Asian and European sides of the city (which started operating in 2013 and will reduce GHG emissions by 130,335 tonnes per year, as well as the expansion and improvement of the railway network, including high-speed train lines.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Agriculture occupies an important role in the economy of rural areas, and negative effects of climate change on water resources will be reflected in water scarcity and an increased need for irrigation. Adaptation actions include protection of water resources, expansion of irrigation systems to increase efficiency, and early flood warning systems.

The government is promoting use of biomass instead of fossil fuels and use of best available agricultural and irrigation techniques to reduce emissions and conserve natural resources in agriculture. A desired effect of the Law on Soil Conservation and the Act on Grassland and Pasture Conservation is to contribute to carbon sequestration. In 2008, Turkey adopted the Action Plan on Drought Preparedness and Combating Drought.

Turkey is committed to reforestation and regulates deforestation, striving to improve economic and social conditions of people living in forest villages and provide funds to install renewable energy sources (especially solar systems) to prevent deforestation. An ambitious reforestation campaign ran from 2008 to 2013 with a target of 2.3m ha of land and the goal of sequestering 181.4m tonnes of CO2 over the course of 20 years.

Adaptation

In 2011, The Ministry of Environment and Urbanization published “Turkey’s National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan”. The document provides an updated risk analysis for the country and identifies challenges to implementation of adaptation strategies. Vulnerability is categorised into six key areas: water resources management; agriculture sector and food security; ecosystem services, biological diversity and forestry; natural disaster risk management; public health; and crosscutting issues. Broad objectives are listed under each category, and the document offers a comprehensive legal and programmatic analysis of how and where the government may intervene within existing legislation and Ministerial projects.

To date, Turkey does not have any litigation listed.

Turkey is a republic based on democracy, secularism, social state, rule of and fundamental rights and freedoms.  Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly (GNAT), a unicameral parliament with 550 deputies elected for four-year terms. GNAT’s election system is based on proportional representation determined by the “D’Hondt formula”, a mathematical formula which involves the principle of highest average. A political party must have at least 10% of total votes to win seats in Parliament. Last general election was held in November 2015 (the next one is expected for 2019). The Assembly is responsible for the enactment, amendment and repeal of laws. The laws adopted by the Assembly are promulgated by the President within 15 days or referred back to the Assembly for further consideration.

The right to introduce bills belongs to the deputies and the Council of Ministers. The bills introduced by deputies are described as private members’ bills. Government bills must contain the signatures of the Prime Minister and all cabinet ministers. The Speaker of the Assembly designates the bill to be considered by a designated standing committee with relevant expertise, which issues a formal opinion to the Assembly before it is put to vote.

Once passed by the Assembly, the law is then transferred to the President. Then the law is sent to the Prime Ministry to be published in the Official Gazette according to the will of the President. Once published, the law takes immediate effect unless otherwise provided in the law. With the exception of budget bills the President may veto all or a portion of a bill, sending the legislation back to the Assembly for re-consideration with justification.

If the President does not approve the publication of the bill in part, the Assembly may debate only the articles that are not approved or the bill as a whole. The Assembly may adopt the text with or without amendments after this debate. If the Assembly accepts the law without amendment, the President must approve promulgation in the Official Gazette. If the Assembly accepts the law with amendments, the President has the right to send the law back to the Assembly.

Last modified 11 December, 2015