This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Climate Act ( 2017 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

This law contains provisions on the government's climate policy work, what the work will be aimed at and how it should be conducted. It provides that the Government will pursue a climate policy that (1) aims to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system, (2) helps to protect ecosystems and the present and future generations from…read more

Amendment to Act Concerning Energy Tax (a component of the climate and energy package) within the 2013 National Budget Bill ( 2013 )

The law aims to support the uptake of biofuels through the establishment of the following tax incentives: – All biofuels are exempted from the carbon tax – Fuels that contain hydrogenated vegetable and animal fats and oils (HVO) in blends of up to 15% are exempt from the fuel tax – E85 and other high-blend…read more

Act on Electricity certificates: Act No. 2011:1200 and Regulation on Electricity certificates – Regulation No. 2011:1480 ( 2011 )

Electricity producers whose electricity production meets the requirements of the Electricity Certificates Act receive one electricity certificate unit for each MWh of electricity that they produce. Demand for certificates is created by the fact that all electricity suppliers, and also certain electricity end users, are required to purchase certificates corresponding to a certain proportion (quota)…read more

Government Bill (2009/2010: 172) & Government Bill (2009/2010:173) on nuclear power ( 2011 )

Passed by the Riksdag, these laws originating in government bills regulate the conditions for constructing and operating new nuclear facilities. New units are only permitted when they replace existing units (a maximum of 10), whereby the older reactor must be permanently disabled and the new reactor needs to be built on an existing nuclear facility…read more

The Building and Planning Act (SFS 2010:900) ( 2010 )

Outlines the parameters for the sustainable planning and conservation of land, water, and development. Authorises municipalities to issue permits and necessary permissions for construction and development, including the construction of wind turbines. Relative to climate change, this Act requires climate impacts and adaptation be considered in planning and permitting for development. Specifically, the Act requires…read more

An Integrated Climate and Energy Policy ( 2009 )

Passed by the Riksdag in 2009, these laws originating in two government bills form the basis of Sweden’s flagship climate policy, known as “an Integrated Climate and Energy Policy. The Integrated Climate and Energy Policy specifies targets for reducing GHG emissions and provides a joint action plan to achieve emission reductions. The climate tax package…read more

Environmental Code DS2000:61 ( 1999 )

The Swedish Environmental Code contains 15 separate environmental acts, which have been consolidated into the environmental code. These concern the management of land and water areas, environmental quality standards, environmental impact statements and other decision guidance data, protection of nature (animals and plant species), environmentally hazardous activities and health protection, polluted areas, water operations and…read more

Act 1990:582 on Carbon Tax and related regulations ( 1991 )

The Carbon Tax Act (as amended in 2013) introduced carbon tax on coal, oil, natural gas, petrol, and aviation fuel used in domestic travel, complementing the already existing energy taxes, aiming at supporting development of cleaner fuels while keeping the burden on the energy sector more or less constant. Initially covering the whole of the above sectors,…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Regulation on State Subsidies for Solar Panels – Regulation No. 2009:689, updated/ amended by Regulation no. 2011:1473 ( 2010 )

The Regulation on State Subsidies for Solar Panels provides for financial support to facilitate the uptake of solar installations. This regulation forms the basis of grants for all types of solar/PV installations. The solar/PV market in Sweden is predominantly focused on off-grid installations in homes in remote areas and utilities such as communication stations or…read more

Action Plan for a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet ( 2009 )

Following from Sweden’s Integrated Climate and Energy Policy Bills, this action plan sets out the specific measures to achieve the objective of a fossil fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. Given that one third of emissions occur in the road-based transportation sector, the fossil fuel independent vehicle fleet is a key contribution to Sweden’s GHG…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

40 percent reduction in GHG emissions (non EU ETS sectors) by 2020 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

50% or more of energy will come from renewable sources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy use to be 20% more efficient by 2020 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

No use of fossil fuels for heating by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Vehicles free from fossil fuels by 2030

Fuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% renewable energy in the transport sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): An Integra... (2009 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

As a member of the European Union and Annex-1 party to the Kyoto Protocol, Sweden’s approach to climate change is predominantly influenced by the commitment to implement international emission reduction targets and corresponding legislation from the EU, which focuses on achieving an overall emission reduction target, a target for renewable energy and improving energy efficiency. The Government introduced no specific legislation to implement the Kyoto Protocol. Instead, different government departments, regions and municipalities implemented the commitments under the Kyoto Protocol via policies, programmes and action plans.

Sweden’s approach to climate change is primarily grounded in market-based initiatives that cut across different sectors, integrating climate mitigation via price signals across industries. The climate strategy emphasises economic policy instruments, supplemented with targeted initiatives such as financial support for technological innovation and the introduction of new technologies into the market.

The Environmental Protection Agency, within the Ministry of Environment, is the lead government body responsible for implementing climate change and environmental policies in the country. In addition to UNFCCC reporting, the Environmental Protection Agency ensures the annual release of emissions statistics and tracking data. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute is also responsible for collating and disseminating climate change information while the Swedish Energy Agency, within the Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications, annually reviews energy and climate advice services and the impact of such services on kilowatt-hours saved. Both the Swedish Forest Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture similarly engage in climate change policy implementation and information dissemination.

The municipalities also play a crucial role in meeting international climate mitigation commitments as they formulate and implement plans for policy measures in all areas including energy management, land use, waste and transportation. Sub-national activity is co-ordinated by the central government, which implements climate legislation mandated by the Parliament. Sub-national activities also include involving citizens in local decision-making and raising public awareness regarding climate change and Sweden’s policy frameworks to encourage citizens to conserve energy and invest in renewables.

Energy supply

According to Sweden’s Sixth National Communication (2014), the composition of energy supply has changed markedly since 1970, when crude oil accounted for more than 75% of the energy mix. Crude oil has now been largely replaced by nuclear power and biofuels: in 2012, oil was 21.5% of the energy mix. Nearly 40% of all petroleum products have been replaced by non-fossil energy sources. By 2010 the share of renewable energy increased to 48% of energy use, meaning Sweden is well on its way to achieving 50% renewables by 2020.

In 2011, hydropower accounted for 45% of electricity production, nuclear power made up 40%, wind power 4%, and fossil fuels and biofuels accounted for the remaining 11%.

Several energy-related policies encourage emission reduction in the energy supply sector: the 2003 Electricity Certificates Act represents a quota system, requiring energy suppliers to purchase certificates corresponding to a certain percentage of their electricity sales, subsidies for photovoltaic installations and tax regulation mechanisms such as reductions in the energy/carbon tax for biofuels.  In 2009, the provisions of this Act were extended until the end of 2035.

Emission reductions in the energy supply sector are seen as a result of the EU ETS, energy and carbon taxes, the electricity certificate system, special support for wind power and targeted energy efficiency measures. Estimates project a business-as-usual surplus of emissions of 15m tonnes in 2007 had the energy supply policies of 1990 been retained. This indicates that emissions (excluding LULUCF) would be about 25-30% higher without the existing policy measures in place, mainly because the profitability of coal would have been high enough to crowd out lower emission energy sources. The tightening of appropriate policy instruments is the key explanation for the avoided emissions.

Energy demand

Sweden has a large electricity demand per capita at an average of 15,000kWh per person/year. Industry makes up the largest share of this demand at 39.3%, followed by transportation (24.1%), residential (22.5%), and commercial, public services and agriculture (14.1%). The Swedish Energy Agency has the broad authority to outline and implement plans of action for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy use to offset this demand.

In 2005, Sweden began an industrial energy efficiency programme that engaged with about 180 power-intensive industries and granted tax-relief for the establishment and implementation of plans for reduced energy use. It yielded energy savings of approximately 1.45TWh per year, according to the Swedish Energy Agency, Although the programme ended in 2009, a new one was re-initiated to engage with 90 power-intensive industries that on aggregate account for a fifth of total electricity consumption.

In 2009, following from the Integrated Climate and Energy Policy bills (2008), Sweden began a comprehensive five-year energy efficiency programme for 2010-2014. Aimed at increasing regional and local climate and energy initiatives, this programme encouraged businesses to audit their energy consumption and to invest in energy efficient technologies.

Energy use was also impacted by grants, the expansion of and connection to district heating, energy efficiency building requirements and EU legislation. In particular, the Eco-design Directive, the Energy Labelling Directive and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive had a positive impact on avoiding and reducing emissions.

Carbon and energy taxes similarly play a significant role in reducing energy demand via price signals that raise the cost of carbon-intensive means of production (through the EU ETS), transportation, and residential use of energy.

Carbon pricing

Sweden has a more ambitious target than the official commitments accepted under the European burden sharing agreement, which only account for one third of emissions, and requires an emission reduction of 17% outside the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Sweden is committed to reducing the remaining two thirds of emissions in the sectors not covered by the EU ETS by 40% in 2020 from 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy to 50% by the same year.

The EU ETS covers the energy sector and energy-intensive industry installations, while the major remaining sectors to which the specific Swedish target applies include: transportation, agriculture, residential housing, services, waste disposal, forestry, and aquaculture. The target includes non-CO2 gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and F-gases. Most emissions originate in the energy, industry and transportation sectors.  Overall projections of avoided emissions due to introduced policy measures in the energy, transportation, industry, agriculture and waste sectors since 1990 indicate a total of 30-35m tonnes CO2 will be avoided annually between 2010 and 2020 compared to business-as-usual scenarios which project emissions of about 95-100 MtCO2e per year for 2010-2020. Most emission reductions in the non-ETS covered sectors are a result of the energy and CO2 taxes.

In 1991, as a component of broad tax reforms, Sweden enacted a carbon tax on coal, oil, natural gas, petrol, and aviation fuel used in domestic travel. This new carbon tax complemented existing energy taxes; however, the 1991 tax reform did simultaneously lower the existent energy tax by 50%.

Initially set at USD100 per ton of CO2 the carbon tax was eventually raised to USD150 per tonne, allowing Sweden to cut its carbon pollution by 9% between 1990 and 2006. Calculated on the basis of a fuel’s fossil carbon content, the tax is charged at a volumetric rate. Both peat and biofuels are exempt from the tax, as well as fuels used for electricity production.

Until 2015, minor tax relief was granted for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) used in cars, ships, and aircraft; however, from 2015 the same level of tax will apply to all fossil fuels. Additionally, EU ETS exempt industries such as agriculture, forestry and pisciculture are subject to a CO2 tax that is 30% of the standard CO2 tax.

Transportation

Sweden predominantly addresses emission growth in the transportation sector via market-based instruments, especially tax increases that reduce demand and encourage more energy- and fuel-efficient vehicles. Sweden implemented the European Biofuels Directive and the European Renewable Energy Directive, thus moving from the indicative 5.75% target for biofuels to a mandatory target of 10% renewable energy sources in transportation.

Sweden links tax incentives to the fuel efficiency of vehicles and their overall climate performance. The biofuels strategy included a temporary exemption for all vehicle biofuels until 2013 from the energy and carbon tax, while at the same time requiring that larger filling stations must sell at least one fuel containing biofuels. This was also linked to the green-car rebate introduced in 2007 that encourages the purchase of vehicles running on biogas or E85, hybrid-electric cars and fuel-efficient vehicles emitting less than 120g CO2/km. The annual vehicle tax for passenger cars is differentiated based on CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the energy efficiency of the car fleet improved due to the higher proportion of vehicles with diesel engines. These measures are expected to avoid emissions from transportation of 5.4m tonnes CO2 by 2020 from 1990 levels as compared to business-as-usual scenarios.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Sweden has a large stock of forests that serve as carbon sinks. About 70% of the area is covered with forests that are predominantly privately owned (77%). The forest area accounts for 28.4m ha, of which 4.4m ha are protected. The land use, land-use change and forestry sector accounted for a net sink of 21-36m tonnes of CO2 over the period from 1990 until 2007. More recently, the sink was reduced by severe storms that brought down a large quantity of forests and increased logging activities. The use of biofuels from wood products has increased from 40TWh to 100TWh since 1990, which also contributed to a reduction of the carbon sink and partly counteracted the biofuels-based emission reductions in the transportation sector. 

Adaptation

Sweden’s Sixth National Communication identifies the following sectors as at risk from climate change related temperature fluctuations and altered precipitation patterns: infrastructure, communications, drinking water supply, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism.

There is no central agency responsible for climate change adaptation measures; rather climate change adaptation is spread across different specialised government agencies including: the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI); and the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.

Sweden has actively put adaptation measures in place to address the expected adverse effects of climate change. The SMHI disseminates continuously updated climate change scenarios and indicators via its platform on www.smhi.se and in 2012 launched a heatwave warning system. A number of government agencies, including the National Veterinary Institute, National Board of Health and Welfare, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease and Control, Swedish Board of Agriculture, and National Food Agency, have collaborated on research regarding climate change impacts and infectious diseases, as well as organizational readiness. In regards to infrastructure, since Sweden experienced significant storms in 2005 and 2007, the nation has works to replace overhead power lines with underground wires.

The implementation of adaptation measures largely falls within the remit of the municipalities, which are responsible for contingency planning, emergency services, technical supplies and overall public planning. Recent extreme weather events motivated investments in pumping systems to address flooding and raise minimum standards for construction. The Planning and Building Act (2008) was amended to prevent new buildings from being erected in unsuitable locations.  It requires taking into account the risks associated with flooding, erosion and accidents in municipal comprehensive and detailed development plans. It requires risk assessments and the formulation of adaptation strategies in the public infrastructure sector, particularly concerning the rail networks and roads. Storms pose risks to the energy sector, which is required to analyse its risk exposure to extreme weather events and address its vulnerabilities, for example by replacing overhead power lines with buried cables for electricity distribution. Adaptation is also addressed in the Budget Bill (Autumn 2008) and the Climate and Energy Bill (2009). In the period of 2009-2011, SEK400m (USD54.2m) were earmarked for adaptation measures.

Sweden’s climate change research focuses on climate processes and climate modelling to develop regional scenarios that form the basis of adaptation plans, as well as measures on co-benefits for climate mitigation and sectoral policies. Studies are undertaken on changes in water resources and forests as well as the effects of climate change-related effects on ecosystems. Social science research ranges from energy systems to research on climate policy processes and planning tools for adaptation to the impact on biodiversity and land use. Swedish research institutions are involved in numerous international research co-operations with European partners and institutions in developing countries alike, where the focus is on environmental technologies, climate-related agricultural research and environmental policy.

PUSH Sweden, Nature & Youth Sweden, et al. v. Government of Sweden (Opened in 2017 )

Citation/reference number: [no citation available]
Jurisdiction: Sweden
Core objective(s): Stop state-owned firm’s sale of coal and coal-burning assets to subsidiary of Czech holding company
Current status: Decided

Vattenfall, an energy firm in which the Swedish government owns a controlling stake, agreed to sell several coal-fired power plants and associated mining assets to the German subsidiary of a Czech holding company. The sale was prompted in part by an environmental review that recommended Swedish divestment from fossil assets. Environmental NGOs and individual plaintiffs…read more

The Kingdom of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with the Monarch serving as the head of State.  In practice, however, it is a parliamentary democracy in which the government is constitutionally formed and led by the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the 349-member Parliament, which is, in turn, elected by popular vote. All members of the Parliament are elected to serve four-year terms and the most recent election was in September 2014. Sweden has had a unicameral parliament since 1971.

Both the Government and private members of the Parliament have the authority to introduce legislation, which is first tabled by the Speaker of the Parliament and assigned to one of 15 Parliamentary Committees for consideration. The specific committee then studies and reports back to the Parliament regarding the legislation in question via a committee report. Following the committee report, the legislation may be subject to a plenary meeting, which involves member debate or debate is forgone in the event of unanimous approval. In order to be approved, legislation must be assented to by a majority of the members of the Parliament. Once approved, legislation is sent to the Government for implementation. Governmental ministries not only implement policies, but also serve as expert bodies throughout the legislative process.

Last modified 22 August, 2017