This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Law 2/2013 on the protection and sustainable use of coastal areas ( 2013 )

This Law incorporates regulations to tackle the effects of climate change on coastal areas. A special system for coastal areas at serious risk is introduced, limiting the activities that can be carried out. Management actions should promote protection, preservation or restoration. It requires the evaluation of the possible effects of climate change into projects in…read more

Law 24/2013 on the Electric sector ( 2013 )

This Law repealed Law 54/1997, which previously regulated the sector. The main driver for the law was to reduce the unsustainable tariff deficit of the electricity sector. A new support scheme for renewable energy sources is planned, based on the direct participation of renewable energy sources in the market, forcing them to compete with traditional…read more

Law 8/2013 on urban rehabilitation, regeneration and renovation ( 2013 )

This Law aims to promote energy efficiency and address the challenges caused by climate change. It recognises the opportunity to change production model parameters to environmental, social and economic sustainability by creating green jobs, specifically those related to renewable energy and rehabilitation policies and energy. It requires the public administration to prioritise renewable energy over…read more

Law 2/2011, on Spain’s Sustainable Economy, regulated by Royal Decree 1494/2011, of 24 October 2011 ( 2011 )

This Law aims to make the economy more competitive by promoting environmental sustainability in sectors such as energy, transport and sustainable mobility, and housing. The Law has four sections. The first is dedicated to improving the economic environment. The second addresses competitiveness and the third, environmental sustainability. The fourth deals with how to implement and…read more

Law 34/2007 on air quality and atmosphere protection, last amended by Law 11/2014 ( 2007 )

This vehicle taxation Law sees official CO2 emissions accredited, as appropriate, by a certificate issued by the manufacturer or importer of the vehicle except where such issues appear on the technical inspection card or other official document issued individually to the vehicle in question. The Law also requires information on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.…read more

Law no 1/2005 regulating the greenhouse gas emission rights trading scheme and creating the Climate Change Policy Coordination Commission (CCPCC) ( 2005 / mitigation Framework )

Law 1/2005 translates EU regulations related to the GHG emission rights trading scheme. It further creates the Climate Change Policy Coordination Commission (CCPCC) as a coordination and collaboration body between the General State Administration and the Autonomous Communities for the application of the trade regime of rights of issue and compliance with international and community…read more

Law 34/1998, on the hydrocarbons sector ( 1998 )

This law regulates activities involving liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The following activities are included within the scope of this Act: (a) Exploration, research and mining of deposits and underground stores of hydrocarbons. (b) Foreign trade, refining, transportation, storage and distribution of crude oil (petroleum) and petroleum products including liquefied petroleum gases. (c) The acquisition, production,…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Royal Decree-law 15/2018 on urgent measures for energy transition and consumer protection ( 2018 )

This decree law aims to accelerate the transition to a decarbonised economy by increasing integration of renewable energies into the Spanish economy and promoting energy efficiency. It aims to use economic signals to incentivise consumers, companies and others to adopt renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. In order to accelerate Spain's transition to renewable energies, the law introduces a…read more

Royal Decree 564/2017 on the certification of energy efficiency in buildings (amending Royal Decree 235/2013) ( 2017 )

This Decree establishes the technical and administrative conditions for certification of energy efficiency of buildings and the methodology for calculating its energy efficiency rating. The purpose of the basic procedure is to promote energy efficiency, using information on the energy characteristics of buildings, in the form of an energy performance certificate that must be provided…read more

Royal Decree 617/2017, of 16 June, regulating the direct granting of aid for the acquisition of alternative energy vehicles, and for the implementation of charging points for electric vehicles in 2017 (Plan MOVEA 2017) ( 2017 )

The purpose of Royal Decree 617/2017 is to regulate the direct granting of aid for the acquisition of alternative energy vehicles (electric, LPG, CNG and LNG vehicles) and for the implementation of charging points for electric vehicles, in pursuance of the objectives of the MOVEA Plan (Plan to Boost Mobility with Alternative Energy Vehicles). The Decree…read more

Royal Decree 389/2016, of 22 October, approving the Master Plan for the Network of Natural Reserves ( 2016 )

The Royal Decree 389/2016 approves a revised Master Plan defining a broad range of rules to be followed by the Network of Natural Reserves. The Network was previously instated by the  Law 30/2014. The Network includes maritime parks. The objective of the Plan is to protect the country's natural systems and ensure as much as possible…read more

Royal Decree 900/2015 on Energy Self-Consumption ( 2015 )

The Royal Decree seeks to promote economically sustainable distributed generation and the use of renewable energies, but also introduces charges and tolls for grid access, with the goal of fair burden-sharing among electricity grid users. All self-consumers connected to the grid (see below) have to be registered with the Registry for Electrical Energy Self-Consumption, even if they do not ever intend…read more

Royal Decree 413/2014, regulating the production of electricity generation from renewable energy, cogeneration and waste ( 2014 )

This Decree establishes the new legal and financial regime for existing renewable energy, cogeneration and waste installations, with the aim of allowing these installations to compete on equal footing with other technologies. This Decree allows installations to receive, in addition to remuneration from the sale of the energy valued at market price, specific payment consisting…read more

Royal Decree 525/2014, on the subsidization of the Incentives Programme for Efficient Vehicles (PIVE-6) ( 2014 )

The Decree considers that renewing the transport fleet is one of the most efficient ways to reduce energy consumption, as well as improve road safety and the general environment. The Decree extends the PIVE programme, with the aim of replacing 450,000 old vehicles. In its sixth edition, the government decided to provide EUR175m (USD216m) to…read more

Royal Decree 233/2013, on energy saving of rental housing, building restoration and urban regeneration and renovation ( 2013 )

The Decree aims to promote the energy renovation of residential buildings. It includes a residential building renovation programme to improve energy efficiency. Measures eligible for subsidy include improving the thermal envelope of buildings to reduce energy demand for heating and cooling; installing heating, cooling, domestic hot water and ventilation systems; and common building facilities such…read more

Royal Decree 238/2013, incorporates the regulation on thermal installations in buildings ( 2013 )

This Decree amends certain articles and technical instructions of the Thermal Installations in Buildings Regulation (RITE) of 2007 and transposes to Spanish legislation the EU Directive 2010/31/EU concerning to periodic inspections of heating systems. The Decree establishes higher energy performance requirements for heating and cooling equipment.…read more

Royal Decree 635/2013, developing the “Plan to Promote the Environment in the hotel sector PIMA SOL\ for the energy renovation of its installations, and regulating the further acquisition of carbon credits by the Carbon Fund for a sustainable economy ( 2013 )

The Plan (PIMA SOL) is an initiative to reduce GHGs in the tourism sector by retrofitting hotels. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and the Environment shall purchase the GHG emission reductions that are generated in hotels through renovation projects, with a financial aid package allocation of EUR5.21m (USD6.54m). The Plan will be part-funded by the…read more

Royal Decree Law 2/2013, which implements urgent measures in the electricity and financial sectors ( 2013 )

This Royal Decree-Law is the 7th Royal Decree Law establishing Spain’s energy reform. The first was Royal Decree Law 1/2012, suspending payment of pre-allocation processes and suspending financial incentives for new electricity production installations using co-generation, renewable energy sources and waste. This Law adopts a series of measures to reduce costs in the electricity system…read more

Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2011-2020 ( 2011 )

The Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2011?2020 lends continuity to the energy saving and efficiency plans formerly approved within the “Energy Saving and Efficiency Strategy for Spain 2004-2012”, approved in November 2003. The Action Plan presents a balance of the savings achieved during the period 2004-2010, and of the tools and measures used to do so.…read more

Plan for Renewable Energy in Spain PER 2011-2020 ( 2011 )

The Plan defines the strategy to continue the growth and development of renewable energy. The PER is based on the essential elements set forth in the PANER, and it is an answer to the Sustainable Economy Law, which requires the government to draw up renewable energy plans in order to reach the renewable energy national…read more

Royal Decree creating the Interministerial Commission for Climate Change ( 2011 )

Royal Decree 1886/2011, which establishes the delegated commissions of the Government, regulates in point three of the second additional provision the composition and functioning of the Interministerial Commission for Climate Change. The Interministerial Commission for Climate Change is chaired by the Minister of Agriculture, Food and Environment.…read more

National Renewable Energy Action Plan PANER 2011-2020 ( 2010 )

The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (PANER) for 2011-2020 designs and incorporates the general scenarios and objectives projected by the EU legislation on fostering the use of renewable energy sources. The main purpose of this Plan is to promote the government’s energy policy, such as guaranteeing and securing the supply of electricity and respecting the…read more

Royal Decree 903/2010, on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risk ( 2010 )

This Decree aims to promote knowledge and assessment of the risks associated with flooding and to promote co-ordinated action by all levels of government and society to reduce the negative consequences of flooding. The Decree establishes a number of key obligations, including the development of: flood risk assessments, hazard maps, flood management plans, sectoral co-ordination,…read more

Spanish Strategy for Climate Change and Clean Energy and the related Plan of Urgent Measures ( 2007 / Mitigation Framework )

The Spanish Climate Change and Clean Energy Strategy (EECCEL) horizon 2007-2012-2020 is part of the Spanish Sustainable Development Strategy (EEDS). The EECCEL includes different measures that contribute to sustainable development within the scope of climate change and clean energy. This Strategy is based on the reference framework of the “Spanish Strategy for the fulfilment of…read more

National Climate Change Adaptation Plan ( 2006 / Adaptation Framework )

The National Climate Change Adaptation Plan is a reference framework for the co-ordination of the Public Administrations in the activities of impact assessment, vulnerability studies and adaptation to climate change in Spain. The Plan considers a series of ecological systems and socio-economic sectors for impact assessment, vulnerability studies and adaptation to climate change: biodiversity, hydro…read more

Spanish Forest Plan ( 2002 )

The Spanish Forest Plan has a 30-year time span (2002-2032). It establishes the necessary actions for the development of a forest policy based on the principles of sustainable development, the multi-functionality of landscapes, territorial and ecological cohesion and public participation in the preparation of policies, strategies and programmes. It aims to increase the amount of…read more

Royal Decrees on the Spanish Office for Climate Change (371/2001, 1000/2003, 1477/2004, 1334/2006, 424/2016, 895/2017) ( 2001 )

The Royal Decree 376/2001 created the Spanish Office for Climate Change (OECC) as the collegial organ in charge of developing climate change policies and depending from the General Direction of environmental quality and assessment of the Ministry of the Environment. The Royal Decree 1000/2003 consolidated the Office's structure and integrated it in the then General…read more

Royal Decrees on the National Climate Council (177/1998, 1188/2001, 415/2014) ( 1998 )

The National Commission of Climate was created in 1992 and attached to the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Environment, in order to come up with the National Climate Program and a governmental strategy. Subsequently to these events, Real Decree 177/1998 created the National Climate Council and regulated its missions, composition and functioning. Royal Decree 1188/2001…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of renewable energy by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Law 2/2011... (2011 / Legislative)

Electricity from renewable sources to reach 32% in 2012 and 37% by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Spanish St... (2007 / Executive)

11.3% of renewable energy in the transport sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Plan for R... (2011 / Executive)

38.1% of electricity generation from renewable sources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Plan for R... (2011 / Executive)

20.8% of final consumption of energy from renewable sources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Plan for R... (2011 / Executive)

20% of renewable energy by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): National R... (2010 / Executive)

Reduction of energy intensity of 2% p.a. between 2010 and 2020 by 2020 against a 2010 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Plan for R... (2011 / Executive)

Reduction of use of primary energy in line with the EU's 20% reduction by 2020 against a 2011 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Law 2/2011... (2011 / Legislative)

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

10% of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Spanish St... (2007 / Executive)

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Absorb 2% of 1990 emissions through the development of carbon sinks in the LULUCF sector between 2008 and 2012 against a 1990 baseline

Carbon Sequestration | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Spanish St... (2007 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Spain ratified the UNFCCC in 1993 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002. It submitted its first National Communication to the UNFCCC in 1994, and its 6th communication was submitted in December 2013. The ‘seventh’ communication to the UNFCCC is now being prepared. Sharing the common Kyoto Protocol target of 8% GHG emissions reduction from base year with the other 14 EU-member states in 1997, when the Protocol was adopted, Spain had to limit its growth in GHG emissions to 15% by 2012 compared to 1990 levels. For the second commitment period (2013-2020), the EU aims to cut overall emissions by 20% compared to 1990. Under the related Effort Sharing Decision (No 406/2009/EC), Spain is responsible for reducing its GHG emissions by 10% by 2020. As a member of the European Union, Spain’s climate policy primarily aims to implement EU laws into national legislation.

Climate policy has been an important topic of debate in recent years. The Climate Change Office, which operates within the Secretary of State of the Environment, leads and co-ordinates the execution of climate change policies in Spain. This structure is supported by an Inter-ministerial Commission on Climate Change, which is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and the Environment (MAGRAMA) and chaired by its Minister; by the National Climate Council, also chaired by the Minister and in which different civil society representatives take part; and by the Climate Change Policy Co-ordination Commission, chaired by the Secretary of State of the Environment.

Spain’s overarching climate policy is the Strategy of Climate Change and Clean Energy, which entered into force in 2007 and will run until 2020. This Strategy focuses on energy efficiency, sustainable transport and renewable energies to reduce GHG emissions. However, in 2012, as a result of austerity measures, the feed-in tariff scheme promoting energy efficiency and renewable electricity was suspended. The Strategy will soon be replaced by an updated scheme based on the Spanish energy roadmap to 2020 and other plans.

Although policies and strategies are usually designed at the central level, regions have a high level of independence and can draft and implement local plans and strategies according to their own specific needs. Autonomous Communities establish their own targets to reduce GHG emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Local governments work to prevent climate change within the Spanish Network of Cities for Climate.

Energy supply

Spain is Europe’s fifth-largest energy consumer, yet it has virtually no domestic production of liquid fuels or natural gas. In recent years, it has generated a significant amount of power from wind and solar energy. Renewable energy, including hydroelectric generation, accounted for 30% of power generation in 2012, while fossil fuels accounted for 49% and nuclear reactors supplied about 21%.

However, following the financial crisis, the government put on hold its renewable energy support schemes. In 2012, it established a moratorium on premiums for new renewable projects and in February 2013 the premiums still in force were changed, reducing the payments to producers. In 2012, a tax on all electricity generation was introduced and subsidies for solar/gas plants were removed in an attempt to address the high tariff deficit.

Regional policies to promote renewable energy remain in place in Catalunya, Andalucía and Valencia.

Energy demand

The government has made great efforts to implement energy efficiency policies to help bring energy intensity closer to the EU average, starting with the 2004–2012 Energy Saving and Efficiency Strategy. By 2010 the nation had achieved its 2016 energy use target and current energy consumption level is 17.6 Mtoe or 23.1% below the EU target for Spain.

Spain promotes energy security through a number of strategies and plans, including the Energy Efficiency Action Plans (EEAPs). The EEAP 2011–2020 has a savings target of 35.5 Mtoe compared with a business-as-usual (BaU) scenario. In order to reach the targets of the EU energy efficiency directive, the government is developing an EEAP 2014–2020, with a savings target of 28.6 Mtoe compared to BaU. The plan foresees 50.6% of savings in 2020 coming from transport and 25.2% in the industrial sector, with the remainder in buildings, farming, fishing and public services.

Other energy saving and efficiency measures include the Efficient Vehicle Incentive Programme (PIVE), the fifth instalment of which is being implemented with a budget of EUR175m (USD216m) ; the Aid Programme for the Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings in the residential sector and hotel industry (PAREER), with a EUR125m (USD156.9m) budget; the ‘Aire’ Environmental Stimulus Plan (PIMA) with a EUR38m (USD47.7m) budget for commercial vehicles; the PIMASOL Environmental Stimulus Plan for the energy renovation of hotel facilities, and the 2013–2016 state incentive plan for rental housing, building renovation and urban regeneration. Supporting these initiatives are a law on fiscal measures for energy sustainability, in effect since January 2013, and a national energy savings and efficiency communication campaign.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Spain has 39% of its territory covered by farmland, while just over a quarter (27%) is forestry land. Since 1990 there has been a reduction in farmland. The National Forest Programme is established by the Forest Strategy and the Forest Plan. The Forest Plan has a 30-year time span (2002-2032), within which there will be two in-depth revisions of the document. The Plan makes a number of direct references to forests as carbon sinks. It states that the actions under the Plan to protect existing forests and prevent their degradation will impact on carbon storage. It estimates that the Forest Plan will result in a 60 Gt increase of carbon sequestration. The Forestry Plan has a target of planting 45m trees between 2008 and 2012 to increase CO2 storage. However, owing to budget cuts because of the economic crisis, this number was reduced to 19.5m trees, which were planted by 2011, leading to reforestation of an area of more than 29,000 ha.

Transportation

The transport sector contributes about 25% of total GHG emissions and it accounts for over 50% of total energy consumption so developing measures in this sector is essential to meet emission reduction targets and energy saving objectives. Measures to reduce emissions and energy use in the sector include: modal shift of passengers, more efficient freight transportation and developing the railway systems.

The EEAP 2011–2020 includes modal shift measures for people and goods (shifting to rail and sea transport), efficiency improvements through a vehicle scrappage scheme (PIVE), promotion of alternative fuels and technologies, and taxation measures. Emissions in the transport sector are due to be 17,900 kt CO2 eq less under the EEAP 2011–2020 than under BaU. The scrappage scheme offers EUR1,000 (USD1,255) to replace cars older than 10-12 years with vehicles with less than a year of age; it aims to replace 75,000 vehicles.

There are also incentives from various regional governments, including grants of EUR2,000 (USD2,510) to EUR7,000 (USD8,785) for electric, hybrid, fuel cell, CNG and LPG vehicles. Andalucía offers up to 70% of the investment. Catalunya provides incentives for different transport-related measures (e.g. purchase of EURO vehicles, use of alternative fuels).

Adaptation

Spain was one of the first European countries to develop an adaptation policy, in 2006. The National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC) is developed by the Spanish Climate Change Office and approved by the Climate Change Policies Co-ordination Commission. Three Work Programmes have been prepared, covering 2006‐2009, 2009-2013 and 2014-2020.

The Third Work Programme, of January 2014, confirms that climate change adaptation has been integrated into a number of Spanish laws, including:

  • Law 22/1988, on the protection and use of the maritime-terrestrial public domain and seashore, altered by Law 2/2013, on the Protection and Sustainable Use of Coastal Areas, which requires a consideration of climate change in new projects in coastal areas
  • Law 45/2007, on sustainable development of rural areas, calls for the replacement of non-renewable energy, and highlights the benefits of increased vegetation cover as a carbon sink, and the need for rural inhabitants to adapt to new environmental conditions arising from climate change
  • Law 21/2013, on environmental assessment, includes the obligation to take into account climate change in plans, programmes and projects that can have significant impacts on the environment.

Judgment No. 1205/2010 of March 4, 2010 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2010 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 1205/2010 of March 4, 2010
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to rules promulgated under Royal Decree
Current status: Decided

An energy retailing company brought suit against the General Government Administration of Spain, challenging Royal Decree 1370/2006 of November 24th (Official Bulletin of the State No. 282 of November 25, 2006), which implemented amendments to Spain’s National Allocation Plan for greenhouse gas allowances for 2008-2012. Court found that rules setting standards for SO2 emissions, and…read more

Judgment No. 3421/2009 of May 29, 2009 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2009 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 3421/2009 of May 29, 20
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to individual assignment of credits
Current status: Decided

Cerámica Dolores García Bazataqui S.L. brought suit challenging the decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005 that declared the individual assignment of emissions allowances for the 2005-2007 term. Cerámica was assigned 18,051 annual credits, instead of the 29,023.76 it had requested. It argued that the assignment of credits was done…read more

Judgment No. 4745/2009 of July 6, 2009 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2009 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 4745/2009 of July 6, 2009
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to emissions allowance
Current status: Decided

A mineral extraction company, Segura, S.L., brought suit against a decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005, which approved the assignment of emission credits to the company’s limestone processing facility in Seville for the 2005-2007 term under the provisions of Royal Decree 5/2004 of August 27th, which regulated the market…read more

Judgment No. 5087/2009 of July 17, 2009 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2009 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 5087/2009 of July 17, 2009
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Sought declaration that both were invalid
Current status: Decided

Arcelor España, S.A. (previously known as Arcelaria Corporación Siderúrgica, S.A.) challenged the decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005, declaring the individual assignment of emissions credits for the 2005-2007 term. Arcelor argued the decision was void because (1) the European norm on which it was based violated the principles of…read more

Judgment No. 6846/2009 of July 15, 2009 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2009 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 6846/2009 of July 15, 2009
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Sought annulment of provision in National Plan
Current status: Decided

Electra de Viesgo Distribución S.L. and Viesgo Generación S.L. (also known as E.On Distribución S.L. and E. On Generación S.L.) brought suit challenging the individual assignment of emissions credits contained in Royal Decree 1866/2004 of September 6, 2004, which approved the National Plan for Assignment of emissions credits 2005-2007. The decree, argued the plaintiffs, did…read more

Judgment No. 5347/2008 of October 6, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 5347/2008 of October 6, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenging to individual assignment of emissions
Current status: Decided

Foraneto, S.L. brought suit against the Council of Ministers of Spain challenging their decision to approve the individual assignment of emissions credits to its energy plant in Tarragona at a total of 140,250 tons of CO2 for 2005-2007 period, or 46.750 tons per year, under the provisions of Royal Decree 5/2004 of August 27th. Foraneto…read more

Judgment No. 6888/2008 of October 1, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 6888/2008 of October 1, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to emissions allowance
Current status: Decided

A brick manufacturer, Macerba de Bailén, S.L., brought suit against a decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005 approving the assignment of emission allowances to its factory in Bailén at a total of 43.746 tons of CO2 over the course of three years (2005-2007), or 14.582 tons per year. The…read more

Judgment No. 6895/2008 of November 19, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 6895/2008 of November 19, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to emissions allowance
Current status: Decided

A brick manufacturer, Ladri Bailén, S.L., brought suit against a decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005 approving the assignment of emission allowances to its factory in Bailén at a total of 57,033 tons of CO2 for the 2005-2007 period, or 19,011 tons per year. The Court declared the decision…read more

Judgment No. 6903/2008 of September 30, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 6903/2008 of September 30, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to emissions allowance
Current status: Decided

An energy company, Unión Fenosa Generación, S.A., brought suit against a decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005, whereby it approved the assignment of emissions allowances to two of the company’s power plants for the 2005-2007 term under the provisions of Royal Decree 5/2004 of August 27th, which regulated the…read more

Judgment No. 6947/2008 of December 3, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 6947/2008 of December 3, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to individual assignment of emissions
Current status: Decided

Cerámica Hermanos Fernández S.L. brought suit against the General Government Administration of Spain challenging the decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005 approving an individual assignment of emissions credits to its facility. The court denied Cerámica’s petition. It rejected petitioner’s argument that the Council’s decision had violated its right of…read more

Judgment No. 7167/2008 of December 2, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 7167/2008 of December 2, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to individual assignment of emissions
Current status: Decided

Cales de Llierca, S.A., brought suit against the Council of Ministers of Spain challenging their decision of January 21, 2005 approving the individual assignment of emissions credits to its lime processing facility for the 2005-2007 period. Cales de Llierca argued the assignment of credits was done in violation of provisions in Royal Decree 1866/2004 which…read more

Judgment No. 7168/2008 of December 3, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 7168/2008 of December 3, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenge to individual assignment of credits
Current status: Decided

Cerámica General Castaños, S.A., brought suit against the decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of January 21, 2005 approving the assignment of emission credits to its facility in Bailen for the 2005-2007 term at 6,666 annual tons of CO2. The Court found in favor of Cerámica, inasmuch as the Administration had not taken…read more

Judgment No. 7449/2008 of November 18, 2008 (Supreme Court of Spain, Administrative Litigation Division, Section 5) (Opened in 2008 )

Citation/reference number: Judgment No. 7449/2008 of November 18, 2008
Jurisdiction: Spain
Core objective(s): Challenging to individual assignment of emissions
Current status: Decided

Minera Catalana Aragonesa, S.A. brought suit against the General Government Administration of Spain (Ministry of the Environment) challenging the decision of the Council of Ministers of Spain of July 14, 2006, approving the individual assignment of emissions credits to its ceramics facility in the region of Onda. Minera Catalana had requested the exclusion of the…read more

Spain is a Parliamentary Monarchy. The King is the Head of State and exercises the functions attributed in the Constitution and the laws. The Constitution defines Spain as a unitary State, but guarantees autonomy for nationalities and regions.

The Spanish Parliament is divided in two chambers: the Congress of Deputies with popular representation, and the Senate with territorial representation. The last regular parliamentary election was held in December 2015 but as no party gained the majority, the Parliament was dissolved and new election held in June 2016, the next is expected for 2020. Both Chambers convene in Plenary Sessions and in Commissions. Assemblies of the Autonomous Communities may ask the government to adopt a bill or send an act of proposal to the Board of the Congress. Popular initiatives require at least 500,000 signatures and cannot introduce legislation dealing with issues reserved to Organic Laws or regarding taxes, international affairs and the prerogative of pardon. The government can introduce bill proposals, which are approved by the Council of Ministers and submitted to the Congress.

The Spanish legal system is hierarchical, so norms of a lower rank cannot override rules of a higher one. The ranking, from higher to lower level, is:

  • Organic Laws – regulate the exercise of fundamental rights and public liberties; statutes of autonomy; the general electoral system; the State ombudsman; the Council of State; the Constitutional Court; and popular legislative initiative. Organic Laws require an absolute majority of Congress in a final vote of the entire bill for their approval, modification or repeal
  • Ordinary Laws deal with all subject matters not reserved to organic laws. They are initiated in Congress. After approval, bills are discussed in the Senate, which may approve, amend or veto them. Congress has the final decision. Ordinary Laws require a simple majority.
  • Decree-Laws are provisional rules issued for extraordinary and urgent matters. Congress must ratify them within a period of 30 days.
  • Legislative Decrees are issued by the executive as a result of a delegation from Parliament and they also rank as laws.
  • Regulations are ranked below acts and refer to any general rule given by the executive power in order to regulate their own institution and procedures.

Autonomous Communities may issue Ordinary Laws, Legislative Decrees, Decrees-Acts, and Regulations. Central government’s rules prevail if they apply to the matter regulated.

In addition, the central executive can issue Decrees from the Council of Ministers; Orders from the Ministers or Delegated Commissions; and Instructions and Orders of Regulation from lower authorities and high officials of public administration.

The King sanctions the acts approved by the Parliament within 15 days, promulgates them, and orders their publication. The acts are then published in the Spanish Official Gazette.

Last modified 30 October, 2016