This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Act No. 250/2012 on regulation of network industries as amended ( 2012 )

The Act gives new competences to the independent national energy regulator with regard to determining prices of energy for each supplier and licensing new market participants. This Act lays down provisions concerning functioning of network industries including electrical energy, gas industry, thermal energy and water management. The present Act establishes the status and competence of…read more

Act No. 251/2012 Coll. on Energy and on change of certain acts ( 2012 )

The principle aim of the law is to implement the provisions of the EU Third Energy Package into national legislation. The Energy Act introduces the obligation to unbundle energy generation and supply from transmission services. The law strengthens consumer rights and gives new competences to the independent national energy regulator. In order to foster liberalisation…read more

Act No. 314/2012 Coll. on regular inspection of heating systems and air conditioning systems ( 2012 )

The Act mandates the regular audit of heating systems (nominal power > 20 kW) and air conditioning systems (nominal power > 12 kW) in order to provide better information to the system operator about the system performance as well as opportunities for system maintenance leading to better energy efficiency and thus contributing to the fight…read more

Act No. 373/2012 Coll. on emergency stocks of oil and oil products and amending the Act on the promotion of renewable energy sources and high efficiency cogeneration ( 2012 )

This Act establishes provisions concerning creation of emergency stocks of oil and oil products and the management of these resources, which should contribute to greater energy security. The present Act also lays down obligations of entrepreneurs relating to mining, manufacturing, trade, storage and transportation of crude oil and oil products, measures in case of serious…read more

Act No. 414/2012 Coll. on Emission Trading ( 2012 )

The Act establishes new allocation rules for CO2 emission allowances for period 2013-2020 in compliance with the EU adopted rules. Distribution of allowances free of charge is for the industrial sources with risks of carbon leakage. In district heat supply sources free allowance distribution is going to be decreased from 80 to 20% in 2013-2020…read more

Renewable Energy Act (Act 309/2009 on Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources and High-efficiency Cogeneration and on amendments to certain acts) ( 2009 )

The Act is the main instrument to support renewable electricity generation. It defines specific options for support for renewable electricity, including the timeframe of guaranteed price of purchase. It also originally mandated electricity producers with capacity of 50MW to produce electricity with minimum of 20% share of renewable resources. Due to its generous feed-in tariffs…read more

Act No. 476/2008 on Energy Efficiency and on the amendment of Act 555/2005 on energy efficiency of buildings and on changes and amendments of certain acts ( 2008 )

The Act lays down obligations in the use of energy and requirements for efficiency use of energy. The Act applies to all forms of commercially available energy with the exception of aviation fuel and heavy fuel oil for maritime transport. The Ministry of Economy is mandated to prepare the concept of efficient use of energy,…read more

Act. 609/2007 on Excise tax from electricity, coal and natural gas ( 2007 )

The Act promotes energy efficiency by establishing an excise tax from electricity, coal and natural gas. However, there are several exemptions from the act, including among others: – electricity used for chemical reduction, electrolytic processes or metallurgic processes – electricity used for mineralogical processes – electricity used for production of goods that require more than…read more

Act No 555/2005 Coll. on Energy efficiency certification of buildings ( 2006 )

The Act is the main instrument to reduce GHG emissions from buildings until 2020. It defines measures leading to improvement of energy efficiency in buildings with the aim to optimise indoor conditions in buildings and reduce CO2 emissions emitted from maintenance of buildings. It also stipulates the respective competences of public authorities. The Act regulates…read more

Act. No. 587/2004 Coll. on Environmental Fund ( 2005 )

The Act establishes the Environmental Fund to channel state support to the protection of the environment. The Fund is co-ordinated by the office of the Ministry of Environment. The Act defines fees, fines and penalties for environmental pollution as the main source of its income, along other sources, including revenues from the sold ‘assigned amount…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

National Adaptation Strategy, Resolution of the Slovak Government No. 148/2014 ( 2014 / Adaptation Framework )

The National Adaptation Strategy contains several objectives, including: dissemination of information and knowledge on the issue of adaptation at all levels of management, as well as for the general public; strengthening of the institutional framework for adaptation processes in the Slovak Republic; developing a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in the context of climate change from…read more

Decree of the Ministry of Environment No. 231/2013 Coll. on the National Emissions Inventory System and on technical-operational parameters ( 2013 )

The National Emissions Inventory System (NEIS) was established in 2007 and updated in 2010 and 2013, with the latest update specifying the documents that have to be publicly accessible on the website of the NEIS. The NEIS was established in compliance with UNFCCC rules, which give the definitions of all qualitative parameters for the national…read more

Introduction of smart meters and distribution networks, Decree of the Ministry of agriculture No. 358/2013 Coll. ( 2013 )

The decree supports the introduction of smart distribution networks by establishing framework for smart meters installation, thus allowing for optimisation of use and efficient management of energy.…read more

Creation of the High Level Committee for Co-ordination of Climate Change Policy (Coordination Committee), Resolution of the Slovak Government No. 821/2011 ( 2011 )

Replaced the Resolution of Government No. 416/2008 of June 18, 2008 establishing the High Level Committee on Climate-Energy Package. The new Committee is co-ordinated by the Ministry of Environment and consists of State Secretaries of selected ministries. The Co-ordination Committee regularly submits reports to the Government on the state of fulfilment of international commitments of…read more

Establishment of sustainability criteria and targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fuels, Decree of Ministry of Environment No. 271/2011 Coll. ( 2011 )

Principles for GHG emission savings during the life cycle for biofuel and bioliquid production, saving of conventional motor fuels. This Decree establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids and limit values for GHG emissions from cultivation of agricultural plants. It lays down sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids, provides details on proving compliance with the…read more

Energy Security Strategy of the Slovak Republic, Resolution of the Government No. 732/2008 Coll. ( 2008 )

The Energy Security Strategy assesses the current energy situation of the Slovak Republic and proposes measures and legislation to be adopted to increase energy security of the country. The key objective of the Energy Security Strategy is to guarantee competitiveness of the energy sector, to provide secure, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of…read more

National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic, Resolution of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 1989/2001 ( 2001 )

The Strategy includes the National Environmental Strategy. Among the strategic targets, three are directly related to climate change and include reduced energy consumption, increase of share of renewable resources and alleviation of consequences of the global climate change. For the “Reduction of energy and resource consumption and increase of effectiveness of the Slovak economy” the…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Slovakia ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002. It submitted its first national communication to the UNFCCC in 1995, followed by communications in 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2013. For the second Kyoto Protocol commitment period, Slovakia has adopted the joint EU “20-20-20” targets of the “climate and energy package”. Within the EU joint commitment, Slovakia is required to limit the increase in its non-ETS GHG emissions to 13% by 2020 (base year 2005), to achieve a minimum share of 14% of gross final energy consumption from renewables by 2020, and reduce total final energy consumption by 11% by 2020 (base year 2005).

So far, meeting international commitments for emissions reductions has not been particularly challenging f, as reflected in the National GHG Inventory System data. Total GHG emissions, including sinks from LULUCF, decreased by more than 38% over 1990-2011 thanks to structural economic changes and strict domestic environmental policies even before the country joined the EU in 2004, particularly on air quality. F-gases (HFCs, SF6) are the only GHGs whose emissions have increased since 1990 (mainly in industry). The country has overachieved its Kyoto target and had a significant surplus of tradable emission allowances in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The profits from the Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanism are reinvested in measures aiming at further reductions of GHG emissions through the State Environmental Fund and the SlovSEFF III Greening Programme.

The Climate Change Policy Department of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) serves as the National Focal Point for the UNFCCC. The MoE adopted the ‘National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic’ (2001), which includes key climate change targets. The government also approved the preparation of the ‘Low-carbon Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic until 2030’ in 2014. The Ministry of Economy coordinates energy policy, including promotion of renewables and energy efficiency. Additionally, the High Level Committee for Co-ordination of Climate Change Policy (created in 2011) ensures an effective coordination of development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of mitigation and adapta­tion policies. It also publishes the “Report on the Current State of Fulfilment of the International Climate Change Policy Commitments of the Slovak Republic”, annually submitted to the Government (so far 2012, 2013, 2014).

Currently, most of the policies and measures to tackle climate change are guided by the EU regulation. The EU ETS is the central policy tool for mitigation of GHGs from stationary sources, complemented by policies and measures aiming to increase the share of renewable energy sources and improve energy efficiency. In addition, policies and measures have been put in place to define more stringent quality standards for fuels and passenger vehicles, as well as GHG mitigation policy for industry, waste management and agriculture. The adaptation strategy was approved in 2013. On the local level, municipalities play an important role, in particular through drafting and implementing local climate change action plans and local climate change adaptation strategies.

Beyond the legislative level, many public and private initiatives exist, such as research activities (e.g. Water Research Institute, Forestry Research Institute Zvolen, Transportation Research Institute Zilina, Slovak Academy of Science), climate monitoring initiatives (e.g. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Slovak Environ­mental Agency), and educational and public awareness-raising activities (academic curricula, conferences, festivals, exhibitions, educational publications and training). Non-governmen­tal organisations and private initiatives (e.g. the Slovak Innovation and Energy Agency, Friends of the Earth, Detox, SPIRIT, Ecosys) are also involved in the development and implementation of measures to mitigate climate change impacts.

Energy supply

The key objectives of energy policy, following mostly from EU legislation, are detailed in the Energy Policy of the Slovak Republic (2000, 2006, 2013), the Energy Security Strategy of the Slovak Republic, the Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2008-2010; 2011-2013), the National Action Plan for Biomass use (2008) and the National Renewable Energy Action Plan (2010). They aim to transform the still primarily fossil-fuel oriented and import-dependent energy production mix of the country (2011: natural gas 26%, coal 22%, nuclear fuel 22%, oil 21%, renewable sources 9%). The main objectives are: increasing efficiency in the power and end-use sectors, reducing energy intensity, reducing dependence on energy imports, expanding the use of nuclear power, and increasing the share of renewables in the heat, electricity and transport sectors to 14% of total energy use in 2020 (base year 2005). Because of high dependence on oil and gas imports (mainly from Russia), energy security is high on the policy agenda and the Government aims to expand storage capacities, enable reverse flows at the country’s two western interconnectors and increase energy efficiency.

The Renewable Energy Act is the main instrument to support renewable electricity generation and fuel switching and led to an unanticipated “solar boom” in early 2011, due to its generous feed-in tariffs for solar energy. The tariffs were scaled back and further restricted in 2013, in an effort to tackle non-transparent practices in the context of financial support for large-scale PV installations. At the same time some administrative barriers to small rooftop PV facilities installations have been reduced: operators of these installations can now generate electricity for their own use without having to register as entrepreneurs.

Energy demand

Slovakia has achieved impressive results in energy efficiency since 1990s (one of the steepest among OECD countries), mainly due to economic restructuring, but also energy efficiency improvements. Energy intensity decreased by 45% between 2001 and 2012, but it still remains higher than the European average and large energy saving potential exists in most sectors, especially in buildings and transport. The main targets, contributing to the 20% EU’s energy efficiency target, include an indicative national energy efficiency target of 3.12 Mtoe for final energy savings for the period 2014-2020 and an absolute target of 16.2 Mtoe for the primary consumption and 10.4 Mtoe for the final consumption by 2020. The Energy Efficiency Act and the Act on energy performance of buildings are the main instruments for demand management by 2020. Additional financial support for energy efficiency measures is provided by a number of programmes, such as the Operational Programme Competitiveness and Economic Growth launched in 2012.

Carbon pricing

The EU ETS is Slovakia’s main carbon pricing initiative. The revenues from AAUs trade constitute income for the Environmental Fund, which also contributes to climate change mitigation measures. Slovakia also implemented the EU directive on excise tax from electricity, coal and natural gas (2008). However, in 2012 Slovakia had the lowest implicit energy tax rate in the EU. The introduction of a carbon tax for the non-ETS sector is under consideration and support for electricity generation from domestic coal has been progressively lowered. While electricity consumers were obliged to pay a total sum of EUR70.6m (USD88.6m) in their final price of electricity in 2011 to support domestic coal, this fee decreased to EUR24m (USD30.1m) in 2013 and is expected to be EUR19m (USD23.8m) in 2014.

REDD+ and LULUCF

A basic framework for the conservation of forests and retaining of carbon stocks in forests has been set up by the Act on Forest Management. It has contributed to the long term increase of forest land (41% of territory in 2012). The carbon stock in above-ground living biomass increased by 46.7m tons between 1990 and 2012.  However, the carbon sinks in forest ecosystems fluctuate substantially depending on meteorological conditions and weather extremes (e.g. the 2004 windstorm in the Tatra Mountains destroyed more than 12,000 ha of forest). Another serious problem affecting the health of forests is the expansion of bark beetle (in particular after the 2004 windstorm), resulting in forest biomass waste and mortality in spruce stands.

Transportation

GHG emissions from transport have been increasing and in 2012 they represented 15.4% of total emissions, despite measures such as new categorisation of vehicles, promotion of new vehicle technologies and advanced fuels. Revenues from taxation of transport (excluding fuels) are low in comparison to other EU member states. On the other hand, biofuels policy has been put in place to meet the targets required by EU legislation. There are two different biofuel targets for the transport sector: biofuel energy content share (calculated from the energy content of the total quantity of petrol and diesel fuels placed in the market) and minimum content of biofuels in each litre of a particular type of fuel (diesel and petrol). As of 2013, the mandatory biofuel content share is 4%, the minimum volume for biodiesel 5.4%, and the bioethanol component in petrol 3.3%.

Adaptation

Slovakia is particularly vulnerable to variations in precipitation and the water cycle, as well as extreme weather events impacting the forest cover. Over the last 20 years, a significant increase in the occurrence of extreme daily precipitation has been observed compared to the period 1975-1993. This trend has resulted in higher risk of local floods (higher frequency and severity – e.g. June 2013). On the other hand, local and regional droughts caused by long periods of relatively warm weather and low precipitation to­tals in the summer have been recorded (particularly strong in 2000, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012). In response to those challenges, Slovakia adopted its National Adaptation Strategy in March 2014. Adaptation measures have also been incorporated into several policies implemented within different sectors including the water, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, and health sectors.

To date, Slovakia does not have any litigation listed.

The Slovak Republic (Slovakia) is a parliamentary democracy established in 1993 as one of the successors to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. The President (Head of State) and the Prime Minister (Head of Government) lead the executive branch; the National Council of the Slovak Republic (NC) forms the legislative branch. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body and the Constitutional Court is tasked with protecting constitutionality.

The NC has 150 members elected for 4‑year terms in direct, proportional representation elections. The last parliamentary elections were held in February 2016, the next elections are expected in 2020. Legislative initiative belongs to members of the NC and the Government. In general, constitutional laws (require ⅗ qualified majority) and Acts adopted by the NC constitute the primary legislation, which has precedence over secondary legislation, including government regulations and resolutions, as well as decrees, declarations and measures adopted by different Ministries.

Draft laws (bills) introduced in the NC are debated and approved through three readings. The adopted bill is sent to the President of the Republic, who has the right of veto and can refuse to sign the bill on the grounds of faulty content and send it back to the NC for further debate. Otherwise, the bill is signed by the President, the Speaker of the NC, and the Prime Minister, and published in the Collection of Legislative Acts, taking effect upon publication.

Last modified 22 August, 2017