Law no 63/2013 determining the mission, organization and functioning of Rwanda Environment Management Authority ( 2013 )

Law no 63/2013 determines the mission, organisation and functioning of the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA). The Authority shall have legal personality, administrative and financial autonomy and shall be governed in accordance with laws governing public institutions. This Law repeals Law n0 16/2006 of 03-Apr-06 which determined the organization, functioning and responsibilities of the Rwanda Environment Management Authority.…read more

Law No. 16 of 22 May 2012, determining the Organisation, Functioning and Mission of the National Fund for Environment (FONERWA) ( 2012 )

This Law determines the organisation, functioning and mission of the National Fund for Environment in Rwanda (FONERWA). The fund will be the primary instrument to channel, distribute and monitor international and national climate finance. FONERWA has four finance windows: conservation and sustainable management of natural resources; R&D and technology transfer; streamlining of climate change issues…read more

Ministerial Order No. 003/16.01 of 15 July 2010 Preventing Activities that Pollute the Atmosphere ( 2010 )

This Ministerial Order regulates activities that give rise to chemical pollutants. Annex A specifies emission standards for CO2, along with other pollutants (such as NOx, SOx, PM10, Lead and Ozone). It prohibits open burning of any substance, except for fires used for recreational purposes and ceremonial; fires purposely set for agricultural control of disease and…read more

Organic Law 4/2005 determining the modalities of protection, conservation and promotion of environment in Rwanda ( 2005 )

This law gives effect to The National Policy on Environment, which sets out how to protect, conserve and promote the environment. It defines the responsibilities of citizen and state and defines principles for using natural resources, such as air and water, protecting biodiversity etc. It orders an environmental impact assessment. Article 27 states that “the…read more

Five Year Strategic Plan for the Environment and Natural Resources Sector (2014-2018) ( 2013 )

This strategy covers a five year period (2013 – 2018) and it was developed to implement the second phase of the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy with the aim of achieving the revised targets of Vision 2020. The Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) Sector and District strategies will contribute to the achievement of the…read more

Second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS II) for 2013-2018 ( 2013 )

EDPRS II aims to implement Rwanda’s Vision 2020, ensuring that the country achieves middle-income status by 2020 by accelerating economic growth to (11.5% average), reducing poverty to below 30%, and restructuring the economy towards services and industry. Its main targets relate to: strategic infrastructure investment for exports; more private sector financing to increase exports; urbanisation;…read more

Green Growth and Climate Resilience – National Strategy on Climate Change and Low Carbon Development ( 2011 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Strategy seeks to meet development goals while reducing the country’s vulnerability through mitigation and adaptation. The key mitigation strategies are: promoting geothermal power generation, with an estimated potential of 700 MW, enough to meet all of Rwanda’s demand if implemented by 2020; integrated soil fertility management, which would cut use of inorganic fertilisers, improve…read more

Rwanda Vision 2020 ( 2000 )

Vision 2020 is a framework for Rwanda’s development, presenting the key priorities and providing Rwandans with a guiding tool for the future. It seeks to transform Rwanda into a middle-income country by the year 2020. This will require achieving annual per capita income of USD900 (USD290 today), a poverty rate of 30% (64% today) and…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Emission reductions by 2030 compared to the BAU scenario, not quantified reduction target mentioned.

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reduce the plot size for single family houses from current 600 m2 to 300 m2 by 2016 and to 225 m2 by 2030

Sustainable Land Management | Target year: 2030

30% forest cover of national land area by 2020

Afforestation | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): Five Year ... (2013 / Executive), Rwanda Vis... (2000 / Executive)

Achieve an overall 30% sustained forest cover of the total national land surface by 2030 from 28.8% in 2013

Sustainable Forest Management | Target year: 2030

Reduction in wood use resulting in 5.77 MtCO2e less emissions by 2030

Sustainable Forest Management | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies

Organic waste use through composting, currently used at a small scale, will be implemented to reach 100% of the households involved in agriculture production countrywide by 2030

Land And Soil Management | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The overall target of the new irrigation programme is to reach 11% by 2030

Irrigation | Target year: 2030

Group based organizations involved in agriculture production and running agro processing facilities reach 90% of the total operating group based organizations in 2030|Installed capacity of agro processing installations is to reach 1,200,000 MT by 2030 from 400,000 MT12 in 2014|100% of farmers with access to services for post harvest treatment and storage of food crops|Reduce post harvest losses to at least 1% by 2030 from 10.4%, 27.4% and 8.3% in 2014 for maize, beans and rice respectively

Food Security | Target year: 2030

100% of the households involved in agriculture production will be implementing agro forestry sustainable food production by 2030|Development and implementation of an intensive agroforestry programme with a target of covering 100% of arable land by 2030

Agroecology | Intensity Target | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies

All the existing 53 gauging stations will be upgraded to automated real time data stations by 2030

Climate Services | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies

Relocate additional 30 000 households from high risk zones by 2030

Disaster Preparedness | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

100% improved cook stoves in all households by 2030

Clean Cooking And Heating: Efficient Cookstoves | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Reduce grid losses from 23% to 7.8% by 2030

Supply-Side Efficiency: Grid/Energy Loss Reduction | Target year: 2030

100 solar PV mini-grids in rural areas (capacity of up to 9.4 MWp)

Mini-Grids

35,000 installation of domestic biogas digesters by 2030; 50% increase in charcoal production by 2030

Renewable Energy: Biofuels | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies

17 km BRT main corridor construction and 6 modern interchanges

BRT

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The economy suffered heavily during the 1994 genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain infrastructure, looting, and neglect of important cash crops. This caused a large drop in GDP and destroyed the country’s ability to attract private and external investments. Nevertheless, Rwanda ratified the UNFCCC in 1995 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2007. It submitted its initial report to the UNFCCC in 2005 and its second communication in June 2012, including a stand-alone mitigation strategy, the Carbon Policy and an updated emissions inventory. Rwanda’s second communication was also approved by the Cabinet as a national report. In order to respond to international obligations, other international frameworks activities are being used, including Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In the past decade, Rwanda has been at the forefront of climate policymaking.

A Climate Change and International Obligations Unit was established in 2009. It operates within the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), a non-sectoral institution under the Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA). The Climate Change Unit oversees the Designated National Authority to co-ordinate carbon market activities. Climate change efforts are supported by donors including the Japanese government, the Least Developed Countries Fund, the Adaptation in Africa Programme and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN).

In 2011 the government published the National Climate Change and Low Carbon Development Strategy. This Strategy was conducted by the Smith School of Enterprise and Environment at the University of Oxford and supported by UK-DFID and CDKN. As a result, nine sectoral working papers have been produced – including on the energy, forests and transportation. The National Climate Change and Low Carbon Development Strategy highlight the need to foster low carbon development by 2050, as well as the implementation mechanisms to meet those needs.

The second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS II 2013-2018) was launched by the President in 2013. The strategy forms the centrepiece of Rwanda’s medium-term plan for development and the framework within which the government will focus efforts on transforming the economy and realising its Vision 2020. Pursuing a green economy approach to development is one of five economic priorities in the EDPRS II. Climate change and the environment have been integrated into EDPRS II as a ‘cross-cutting issue’ to mainstream environmental sustainability into productive and social sectors and reducing vulnerability to climate change.

A Fund for Environment and Climate Change (FONERWA) was launched in October 2014. The government expects that the fund will be the engine of green growth, mobilising and channelling domestic and international financing to public and private environment and climate change projects. The green fund will support projects that align with the country’s commitment to a strong and prosperous green economy. FONERWA is expected to contribute approximately 20–30% to Rwanda’s existing financing gap, which is estimated at approximately USD 100m per year.

EDPRS II identifies both the Green Growth and Climate Resilience Strategy and FONERWA as strategic tools for guiding specific interventions within national sector strategic plans and their implementation. 

Energy supply

Energy consumption is dominated by biomass consumption (wood-fuel and agricultural residues), which accounts for 86% of consumed energy, followed by petroleum products (11%) and electricity (3%), roughly half of which is generated from hydro sources and half from thermal power plants.

To increase energy generation to meet projected future demand and better develop indigenous sources of energy, the new EDPRS proposes two measures: (i) the development of a clear roadmap for investment in electricity generation, involving a balanced mix of energy sources, eliminating electricity subsidies and cutting the cost of energy; and (ii) private investment in the sector. The EDPRS also mentions an electrification programme to promote universal access to electricity, through on-grid and off-grid solutions. The electrification programme aims to connect to the grid 45% of households by 2017, as well as industrial, mining, agriculture and commercial users. Off-grid options such as solar and biogas are seen as the most economical and sustainable options for poor households.

The government is planning significant increases in generating capacity over the next five years, using a mix of fossil fuels, renewable energy and peat. A recent report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance suggests that Rwanda could achieve 100% access to clean electricity by 2020, providing significant environmental and climate benefits, while reducing the country’s import dependence and creating export opportunities for electricity and natural gas. The government recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Ignite Power, establishing the framework for large scale deployment of solar electric systems across rural communities.

Energy demand

The launching of the CDM resulted in the development of programmes to promote efficient cook stoves. Programmes of Activity (PoAs) and private initiatives are promoting efficient cook stoves in the country.

In 2005, the Rwanda Environment Management Authority, with the support of UNEP, introduced a programme to promote resource efficiency and cleaner production. This scheme applies integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment. In 2008 the Rwanda National Cleaner Production Centre (Rwanda-NCPC) was established, and carried out various projects to raise awareness and promote resource and energy efficiency in industry and domestic environments.

Vision 2020 acknowledges that wood is the source of energy for 99% of the population, which leads to deforestation and soil destruction. It projects that by 2020, at least 35% of the population will be connected to electricity (up from the current 6%) and the consumption of wood will decrease from 94% to 50% of national energy consumption.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Rwanda is a net sink for GHG emissions due to the large amounts of CO2 absorbed by forests, which are estimated to sequester approximately 9,000Gt of CO2/yr (2005). Yet, deforestation is increasing as a result of firewood collection, charcoal production in open kilns, and use of fossil fuels in generators and kerosene for lighting and cooking.

The second communication to the UNFCCC suggests the following measures to deal with emissions from land use change: afforestation, reforestation, forest management, reduced deforestation, management of timber products, use of forest products to replace oil (bio-energy), improvement of tree species to increase biomass productivity and carbon sequestration, and improved remote sensing technologies to study vegetation and soil, the potential for carbon sequestration and to map land use and land use change.

Rwanda has a National Forestry Policy (2010) which sets a target to increase national forest cover and for the forestry sector to play increasing role in national economy. The forestry policy aims to improve livelihoods through job employment creation, increased forest revenues, value addition, and further balanced ecological benefits and a sustained yield. Specifically, it aims at ensuring that the present forest cover is first over all maintained, well managed and increased to 30% of the country total area by 2020.

The first Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS I 2008-2012) acknowledged forestry as a strategic area to alleviate the rate of natural resources degradation. Accordingly, EDPRS I put forward the need to run an inventory and mapping of national forest resources in providing the basis for a ten year national forestry plan; develop a strategy for the private sector involvement; and implement a reforestation strategy. It recognized furthermore the need to put in place a joint strategy with MINAGRI to promote agroforestry for non-wood uses, including medicinal uses, honey production, wild foods and handicraft production by intensifying agroforestry up to 85% of farmlands.

EDPRS II 2013-2018 retains forestry as a main concern in recognition of its prime contribution to the GDP. This will be achieved through increased job creation in forestry from 0.3% to 0.5% by 2018, and reduction in the use of biomass energy through the use of improved stoves and improved kilns to produce 75% of charcoal by year 2018. It supports the previous target of increasing forest cover to 23.5% by 2012 and reset a new indicator to reach 30% by 2018. In addition, EDPRS II recommends for sustainable management of forest biodiversity and critical ecosystems through protection and maintenance of 10.25% of the land area, and reduction of wood energy consumption to 50% by 2020 as reflected in the 2020 Forestry Policy and the 2020 Vision targets.

The Five Year Strategic Plan for the Environment and Natural Resources Sector establishes targets of forestry to increase forest cover, with districts measuring their success against new forest planted, targeting a minimum of 83 trees per household in rural area and 5 trees in urban areas, with a survival rate of 90%.

Adaptation

Rwanda completed its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2006. The Programme addresses water shortage and the effects on agricultural productivity of flooding, landslides, heavy rain falls, extreme temperatures, heat waves and drought. Several districts have been selected to pilot adaptation measures. The second national communication submitted to the UNFCCC in 2012 contains the latest climate risk and vulnerability assessment for the country.

In 2010, Rwanda, Japan, UNDP and UNEP launched two climate change adaptation programmes. The first programme (2010-2013), funded under the Global Environment Fund (GEF), focused on reducing vulnerability to climate change by establishing early warning and disaster preparedness systems and support for integrated watershed management in flood prone areas. The second programme (2010-2014), funded by Japan, focused on building an integrated comprehensive national adaptation approach in Rwanda.

To date, Rwanda does not have any litigation listed.

Rwanda is a presidential republic with a legal system based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law. The president is head of the govern­ment and head of the state. The parliament is bicameral and comprises the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 26 members, some of whom are appointed and some elected for an eight-year term. The Chamber of Deputies has 80 members, who are elected for five years. The current legislature periods of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are 2013–2018 and 2011–2019 respectively.

The constitution of 2003 is the supreme law. International treaties ratified by Rwanda come second in the legislative hierarchy, followed by organic laws (which require a special majority), ordinary laws (requiring a regular majority) and Orders by the President, Prime Minister, and Ministers.

The main legislative organ is the Parliament, although the President has legislative powers as well. Laws can be initiated by the Chamber of Deputies or by the cabinet. The president of the Chamber of Deputies then passes the proposals to a permanent commission. Proposals are debated in detail in the plenary session and then voted on. The President has the authority to request a second examination by parliament of organic laws and ordinary laws after they have been voted on. If no re-examination is requested (or after it has been re-examined), the President promulgates the law within 30 days.

Last modified 21 August, 2017