Federal Law No. 219-FZ on ‘Amendments to the Federal Law No. 7-FZ “On Environmental Protection” ( 2014 )

This law amends Federal Law No. 7-FZ “On Environmental Protection” from 2012 and other laws including the Law on the Protection of the Atmospheric Air, the Tax Code, the Town Planning Code and the Code on Administrative Violations. The document entered into force in January 2015 and its provisions apply from J January 2019. It…read more

Federal Law 261-F3 on Saving Energy and Increasing Energy Efficiency Increase ( 2009 )

The Law establishes basic principles to regulate energy consumption to increase its efficiency and encourage energy saving, and provides for various amendments to existing legislation (on technical regulation, housing, town planning, taxation, etc.) to enforce energy-saving rules. The Law calls for a number of follow-up implementing by-laws. Various sub-laws to the 2009 Energy Efficiency legislation…read more

State Program on Energy Efficiency and Energy Development (approved by Government Decree No 321) ( 2014 )

The main objective of the Programme, which updates and replaces measures of the previous State Policy on Energy Efficiency Increase through the Use of Renewables for the Period up to 2020 (2009), is to “ensure reliable supply of the country's fuel and energy resources, increase the efficiency of their use, and reduce of anthropogenic impacts…read more

Decree No. 449 on the Mechanism for the Promotion of Renewable Energy on the Wholesale Electricity and Market ( 2013 )

This decree establishes a number of rules and mechanisms designed at promoting renewable energy sources in Russia. The document defines the procedure for calculating renewable power prices. Wind, solar PV and small hydropower plants with a capacity higher than 5 MW (and lower than 25 MW for hydro) can participate to auctions held yearly to…read more

Decree No. 449 on the Mechanism for the Promotion of Renewable Energy on the Wholesale Electricity and Market ( 2013 )

This Decree defines the rules of the scheme aiming at supporting renewable energy in Russia. Wind, solar PV and small hydropower projects can receive support for up to 15 years if they are readily able to generate electricity on demand. Eligible projects must have a capacity above 5 MW, and hydropower plants cannot exceed 25…read more

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (Presidential Decree 752) ( 2013 )

The Decree adopts a target for GHG emissions, establishing that by 2020 they cannot exceed 75% of the total emissions of 1990. The government approved in April 2014 an Action Plan to achieve the GHG emissions reduction goal that consists of three parts: - Development of GHG emissions accounting and reporting system at regional and…read more

Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation ( 2009 / Mitigation Framework )

The Doctrine has a declarational nature, sets strategic guidelines and serves as a foundation for the development and implementation of future climate policy, covering issues related to climate change and its consequences. It is not a binding bill. The Doctrine is based on fundamental and applied scientific knowledge, including various studies carried out within the…read more

Energy Strategy to 2030 ( 2009 )

The strategy, approved until 2030, is aimed at increasing domestic oil and gas production. The main goal of the first stage is to eliminate the impact of the on-going economic crisis on the energy sector and pave the way for post-crisis development. The second stage will focus on improving energy efficiency. By the end of…read more

Legislation on the limitations of associated gas flaring ( 2009 )

This Decree seeks to reduce emissions from gas flaring. A 5% limit for gas flaring has been set for the year 2012 and subsequent years, with fines being imposed if this threshold is exceeded or if there is no measurement equipment.…read more

On the Measures of Implementing Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Government Decree No. 844) ( 2009 )

Document providing for new opportunities for the realisation of Joint Implementation projects envisaged under the Kyoto Protocol. The Selection Rules were prepared and approved in December 2009 and have been submitted for registration (legal expertise) at the Ministry of Justice but have yet to be approved. Companies can apply for JI projects in energy, agriculture,…read more

Rules of Using Thermal Performance of Buildings ( 2003 )

The Thermal Performance of Buildings code entirely replaced the federal building code, Thermal Engineering for Buildings, revised in 1995 and 1998. Effective 1 October 2003, the new code: – Establishes numerical values for required performance targets, corresponding to world levels – Classifies new and existing buildings according to their energy efficiency – Encourages buildings that…read more

Programme for Energy Efficient Economy ( 2001 )

In 2001, Russia launched a Federal Targeted Programme for an Energy Efficient Economy for the period 2002–2005, with an outlook to 2010. It sets targets and outlines measures for energy efficiency improvements in different sectors of the economy. It was to be financed partially by the federal budget, partially by municipal/regional budgets and other sources.…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Limit GHG emissions to 70-75% of 1990 levels by 2030

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

No more than 78% of GDP-specific energy intensity by end of Phase 1, no more than 57% by end of Phase 2 (no specific date), and no more than 44% by 2030 against a 2005 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Str... (2009 / Executive)

Increase in the share of non-fuel energy in the primary energy consumption from 11% up to 13–14% by 2030 against a 2005 baseline

Fuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Str... (2009 / Executive)

No more than 83% of emissions by end of phase 1, no more than 90% by the end of phase 2, and no more than 105% by 2030 against a 2005 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Str... (2009 / Executive)

Decrease of at least 2% in specific fuel consumption for heat generation by boiler rooms by end of phase 1, decrease of at least 6% by end of phase 2, and decrease of at least 10% by 2030 against a 2005 baseline

Fuels | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Str... (2009 / Executive)

38% of non-fuel energy by 2030

Fuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): Energy Str... (2009 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia in 2004 was crucial for the entry into force of the international treaty. The main legislation on climate and emissions mitigation rests mainly on various laws on establishing the domestic compliance instruments as required by the Protocol as well as the recent Climate Doctrine. An important component of the Protocol’s framework, the Joint Implementa­tion mechanism, was adopted in Russian legislation in 2009. The original 2007 Joint Implementation legislation was considered too complicated so the responsibilities were redistributed by involving Sberbank, a state-owned bank, which fulfils the functions of the “carbon units’ operator”, and the approval system was re-established.

The Climate Doctrine, approved in 2009, marks a crucial step in Russia’s recognition of the potential benefits of mitigation measures and its will to engage with the international community. Although it is not legally binding, it is a strong statement of intent. It sets strategic guidelines and targets as well as serving as a foundation for developing and implementing future climate policy, covering issues related to climate change and its consequences. The doctrine will serve as a blueprint to harmonise domestic climate-related legislation with international standards, improve climate monitoring, stimulate the adoption of stronger environmental standards, the adoption of energy-efficiency and energy-saving measures, as well as greater use of alternative (including renewable) energy sources.

Although the doctrine recognises the potential of Russia’s vast forests as a carbon sink and recommends their use, it does not set up any major forestry action. However, the commitment under the Copenhagen Accord includes measures to provide the “appropriate accounting of the potential of Russia’s forestry in frame of contribution in meeting the obligations of the anthropogenic emissions reduction”.

In 2013 the President issued a decree setting out the national domestic target for reducing emissions by 2020 to 25% below 1990 levels and in March 2014 the Ministry of Economic Development rolled out a draft action plan to deliver the 2020 goal. In November 2014, the government also presented a general concept for measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system for businesses as one of the measures to help attain the 2020 goal. A first set of scenarios on Russia’s emissions trajectory until 2020 and beyond (2030) has been elaborated within the Ministerial document Projection of long-term social and economic development until 2030 (March 2013), with projected GHG emissions peaking beyond 2020 and then declining again to 70% of 1990 levels by 2030.

Energy supply

Russia’s policy on sustainable energy supply and renewable energies is based on the State Policy of Energy Efficiency Increase through Use of Renewables for the Period up to 2020 adopted in 2009. The State Policy established targets for the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources up to 2020, excluding large hydro (over 25MW). The target is 1.5% in 2010, 2.5% in 2015 and 4.5% in 2020 and a series of measures are to be implemented and monitored to achieve those. In early 2014 a new version of the State Programme on Energy Efficiency and Energy Development was adopted. It keeps the target of a 40% decrease in the energy intensity of the economy between 2007 and 2020. However it cut the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources up to 2020 from 4.5% to 2.5% by 2020 excluding large hydro (over 25MW).

Russia has the world’s largest emissions from gas flaring. The World Bank estimates the reduction potential from flaring to be 70 Mt CO2 at 2007 gas prices. In 2009, a government decree was adopted that seeks to reduce emissions from gas flaring. A 5% limit for gas flaring has been set for 2012 and subsequent years, with fines being imposed if this threshold is exceeded or there is no measurement equipment.

Energy demand

Russia is one of the main global suppliers of gas and oil. In order to improve its energy conservation and efficiency, it has passed several laws and rules, including the federal Thermal Performance of Buildings code (2003) and legislation “On Saving Energy and Increasing Energy Efficiency” (2009), which establishes basic prin­ciples to improve energy efficiency and to encourage energy saving, and provides for various amendments to existing legislation. Various subsequent sub-laws define tasks and respon­sibilities. In addition, there are various federal or regional programmes on heating or building efficiency such as the Heat Efficiency Leveraging Programme (HELP, initiated 1998) under the auspices of USAID, the Russian Investment Initiative and the US–Russian Commission on Scientific and Technological Co-operation.

Russia also has several framework policies or energy strategies where the goals, objectives and main directions of long-term energy policy are set out, with a strong emphasis on energy efficiency. These include the 2001 Federal Targeted Programme for an Energy Efficient Economy for 2002–2005 (updated in 2010 by the State Target Programme on Energy Efficiency) the 2003 Energy Strategy to 2020, and the 2009 Energy Strategy to 2030 where, by the end of the third stage, Russia is expected to have switched to highly efficient use of traditional energy and stand ready for the transition to alternative energy. The Energy Strategy of Russia to 2035 is currently under discussion. It identifies energy efficiency as one of the four main strategic goals and expands the concept of energy efficiency beyond energy saving. It proposes lowering the amount of electricity per unit of GDP by 40% and energy intensity by 50% by 2035 (as compared to 2010 levels). The Strategy is expected to be adopted in early 2015.

Adaptation

Despite not having a specific National Climate Change Adaptation Plan, Russia has adopted some climate change adaptation measures aimed at reducing natural disaster damage and other negative climate events, based primarily on provisions of the Climate Doctrine (2009). The 2014 Progress Report on the Execution of the Climate Doctrine Implementation Plan states that measures and solutions were developed in 2013 to address issues such as: development and implementation of measures aiming to prevent growth in the frequency of forest and peat fires; mitigation of production loss risks in agriculture; limiting negative impacts caused by more frequent floods due to higher rainfall and rising sea levels; and mitigation of mountain glaciation degradation, dangerous mudflow and avalanches. The Ministry of Natural resources is in the final phase of developing the Strategy Convention on Biodiversity Conservation, which includes tasks on adaptation of biodiversity to climate change and on forestry adaptation to climate change. The project is financed by the GEF and its implementation is co-ordinated by the WWF Russia.

To date, Russia does not have any litigation listed.

Russia has a bicameral system and the Federal Assembly consists of the State Duma (Lower Chamber) and the Federation Council. Members of the Federation Council serve 4-year terms and members of the State Duma serve 5-year terms. Latest election for State Duma was held in September 2016,the next is expected for 2021. The Duma passes laws, which are then sent to the Council for confirmation and forwarded to the President for signing and publication. Federal laws have priority over regional laws and direct effect throughout the territory of Russia. Often, Russian laws are adopted in the form of a Code of Law. A Code is a complete collection of rules in an entire subject area.

Another source of law, graded lower in the hierarchy of laws, is executive regulations (decrees and directives). The President can pass decrees on any issue without limits if a valid federal law does not regulate that issue, except in cases when the Constitution directly says that the question requires the adoption of a federal law. Usually, Presidential decrees implement higher-level acts of law.

An additional group of legislation is comprised of normative acts of federal executive authorities. These acts are related to laws through directives of the government. They develop, add and consolidate existing legal norms. Although ministerial documents are acts of special jurisdiction and regulate activities of the subordinated persons and legal entities, sometimes they can be of interdepart­mental or even general significance.

Last modified 14 November, 2019