The People’s Survival Fund Act (RA 10174) ( 2012 )

RA 10174 amends RA 9729 (Climate Change Act) to establish The People's Survival Fund, a long-term finance stream to enable the government to effectively address climate change. It creates the nine-member People's Survival Fund board tasked to oversee policy and strategy on how the funds will be used. The board will be chaired by the…read more

Philippine Disaster Reduction and Management Act (RA 10121) ( 2010 )

The Act shifted the policy environment and the way the country deals with disasters from mere response to preparedness. RA 10121 provides a comprehensive, all-hazard, multi-sectoral, inter-agency, and community-based approach to disaster risk management through the formulation of the National Disaster Risk Management Framework. A National Disaster Risk Management Plan (NDRMP) is being formulated, developed,…read more

The Climate Change Act (RA 9729), and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR, Administrative Order No. 2010–01) ( 2009 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Act acknowledges the Philippines’ vulnerability to climate change and the need for appropriate adaptation. It creates a comprehensive framework for systematically integrating the concept of climate change, in synergy with disaster risk reduction, in various phases of policy formulation, development plans, poverty reduction strategies and other development tools and techniques. The Act states the…read more

Renewable Energy Act (RA9513) ( 2008 )

This Act, overseen by the Department of Energy, employs various instruments to encourage the supply of electricity from renewable sources. The Act creates a Renewable Portfolio Standard for electricity generation from renewable sources, setting a minimum percentage of renewables supply for every electricity supplier. A feed-in tariff is introduced, which includes priority connection to the…read more

Biofuels Act (RA 9367) ( 2007 )

The Act introduces mandatory use of biofuels in the fuel mix, as follows: a minimum 5% of bioethanol in the gasoline mix sold and distributed within 2 years; a minimum of 10% within 4 years is required. There is priority for locally produced bioethanol, and only in the case of shortage may it be imported.…read more

Mini-hydroelectric Power Incentive Act (RA 7156) ( 1991 )

RA 7156 aims to strengthen and enhance the development of the country's indigenous and self-reliant scientific and technological resources and capabilities and their adaptation to the country in order to attain energy self-sufficiency and thereby minimise dependence on outside source of energy supply. To this end, mini-hydroelectric power developers shall be granted the necessary incentives…read more

Executive Order No. 174, Institutionalizing Philippine Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management and Reporting System ( 2014 )

The Philippine Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management and Reporting System was established to institutionalise the GHG inventory management and reporting system in relevant government agencies to enable the country to transition towards a climate-resilient pathway for sustainable development. The Climate Change Commission was designated as the overall lead in its implementation, and will: - Provide direction…read more

Executive Orders no. 43 and no. 24 , Cabinet Cluster on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation ( 2011 )

The Order reorganised the Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Cluster to focus on the conservation, and protection of the environment and natural resources. It shall take the lead in pursuing measures to adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change on the Philippine archipelago; and undertake all the necessary preparation for both natural and…read more

National Climate Change Action Plan ( 2011 )

The National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) assesses the current situation of the country with regard to climate change risk and outlines the NCCAP’s agenda for adaptation and mitigation for 2011 to 2028 as a response to the current situation and projected impact. It also prioritises food security, water sufficiency, ecosystem and environmental stability, human…read more

Executive Order No. 881, Authorizing the Climate Change Commission to Coordinate Existing Climate Change Initiatives, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – Plus, and Other Similar Mechanisms ( 2010 )

This law authorizes the Philippines' Climate Change Commission to include the coordination of actions and plans related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – Plus (REDD+) within the scope of its activities. It also designates the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as the organization primarily responsible for implementing REDD+ plans and programs emanating…read more

Framework Strategy on Climate Change ( 2010 )

The National Framework Strategy sketches a clean development path, and serves as a roadmap for national and sub-national development and investment programmes, physical and land use programmes. Acknowledging the Philippines’ vulnerability to climate change, the Framework’s vision is “to build the adaptive capacity of communities and increase resilience of natural eco-systems to climate change, and…read more

Philippine National REDD-plus Strategy ( 2010 )

The Philippine National REDD+ Strategy (PNRPS) presents a broad range of strategies and corresponding activities over a 10-year time horizon (2010-2020), and seeks to prepare forestlands managers throughout the country to assume responsibility in implementing REDD+ programmes, research, projects and activities with the support of international, national and local agencies, NGOs and other support groups.…read more

Philippine Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation ( 2009 / Adaptation Framework )

The formulation of the Philippine Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation builds on existing institutional processes but gives strong emphasis on collaboration among national agencies, the legislative branch, the academy, business and civil society. Eight technical working groups were organised to tackle needs and concerns in eight major sectors: Agriculture, Biodiversity; Coastal and Marine; Forestry; Water;…read more

Administrative Order 110, directing the Institutionalization of the Government Energy Management Program ( 2006 )

The Order established that the government shall aim to reduce its monthly consumption of electricity and petroleum products by at least 10% for a minimum period of 3 years starting in January 2005. Each government entity is mandated to adopt and implement an electricity efficiency program to reduce electricity consumption by ten 10% of its…read more

Executive Order 472, institutionalizing the Committee on Fuel conservation and Efficiency in Road Transport ( 1998 )

Under Executive Order 472, the Committee on Fuel Conservation and Efficiency in Road Transport (CFCERT) was created. The Committee is chaired by the Undersecretary of DOE and co-chaired by the Undersecretary of the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC). Twelve government agency representatives and six private sector representatives comprise the Committee. The aim is to…read more

Executive Order 123, institutionalizing the Committee on Power Conservation and Demand Management ( 1993 )

The Order institutionalised the Committee on Power Conservation and Demand Management (CPCDM). The CPCDM is headed by a private individual and Co-Chaired by a DOE undersecretary, with nine other government agencies and six private organisations and NGOs making up the CPCDM Committee. The major role of CPCDM is to promote power conservation and demand management…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

About 70% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the BAU scenario of 2000-2030

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Double renewable energy capacity to 9000 MW by 2022 against a 2010 baseline

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2022 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): Framework ... (2010 / Executive)

5% bioethanol in total gasoline fuel sold by 2009

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2009 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Biofuels A... (2007 / Legislative)

11.75 MW installed solar capacity by 2015, then 85 MW by 2030

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015, 2030 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

4,434 MW installed hydropower capacity in 2015, then 7,534MW by 2030

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015, 2030 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

93.9 MW installed solar capacity by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

1,018 MW installed wind capacity by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

Double geothermal capacity from 1972MW to 3447 MW by 2030 against a 2010 baseline

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2010 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

10% cut in avg monthly fuel consumption by 2004 against a 2003 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2004 | Base year: 2003 | Source(s): Administra... (2006 / Executive)

10% cut in avg monthly electricity consumption by 2004 against a 2003 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2004 | Base year: 2003 | Source(s): Administra... (2006 / Executive)

10% energy savings by 2020, 2030 compared with a 2020, 2030 scenario

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2020, 2030 | Source(s): National C... (2011 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The Philippines’ vulnerability to climate change, demonstrated once again by the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan in 2013, has served as a backdrop to extensive policymaking on sustainable development and climate change since the early 1990s.

The right of the people ‘to a balanced and healthful ecology, in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature’ is protected in the 1987 constitution. As early as 1991, the Philippines established the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC), led by the Environmental Management Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Department of Science and Technology. The Philippines ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol (as a non-Annex I country) in 2003. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources was designated as the authority for managing CDM projects, and to date, 72 projects have been registered.

The Clean Air Act of 1999 included a section on GHG emissions, and called for a national plan on GHGs to be prepared. The first national communication to the UNFCCC, submitted in 2000, included a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of GHGs (updated to 1994). The second communication was submitted in December 2014.

In 2007 a presidential task force on climate change was established and in 2009, the Climate Change Act created the Climate Change Commission – an independent and autonomous body with the status of a national-agency, tasked to co-ordinate, monitor and evaluate government programmes and action plans on climate change. In 2011, a Cabinet Cluster on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation was created. The cluster is chaired by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources secretary, and its members are the secretaries of key ministries and agencies. The cluster’s aims are to assess the extent of co-operation with civil society, to evaluate milestones relative to intended outcomes, and to fast track programmes. It promotes the mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures by local governments, the formulation of alternative and inclusive urban development plans, and the undertaking of risk reduction measures.

The Climate Change Act of 2009 also created a legal framework to mainstream climate change into all levels of decision making. It emphasised the frontline role of local governments, and mandated them to draft Local Climate Change Action Plans, consistent with the National Framework and the National Action Plan. The Climate Change Commission supports local governments in these efforts.

Subsequently, the Climate Change Commission created a National Framework Strategy on Climate Change for 2010-2022. The strategy emphasises the adaptation pillar, with the mitigation pillar taken into account where applicable, as a function of adaptation. In 2011 the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) was adopted. The NCCAP identifies seven strategic priorities to address climate change effects between 2011 and 2028: food security; water sufficiency; environmental and ecological stability; human security; sustainable energy; climate-smart industries and services; and knowledge and capacity development. These priorities will be implemented by financing, valuation of natural resources, multi-stakeholder partnership, and capacity building.

In 2013, The Climate Change Commission and the Department of Budget and Management issued a Joint Memorandum mandating government agencies to track their climate change expenditures in their 2015 budget submissions, using the Climate Change Expenditure Tagging Guidelines (CCETG). This will allow tracking, monitoring and prioritising of climate budgets and increased transparency.

The Philippine Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management and Reporting System was established in November 2014 to institutionalise the GHG inventory management and reporting system in relevant government agencies to enable the country to transition towards a climate-resilient pathway for sustainable development. The Climate Change Commission was designated as the overall lead in its implementation.

Energy supply

The Philippines’ generates over 52% of its energy from renewable energy – primarily geothermal (14.4%) and hydropower (11%). Laws such as the Mini Hydroelectric Power Incentives Act (1990) have been adopted for energy security and energy independence reasons, but also helped to change the country’s energy mix. In 1991, incentives for hydro-power were introduced. Since the 2006 Biofuels Act, a minimum percentage of biofuels and biodiesel must be included in the fuel mix. In 2008 a Renewable Energy Act was approved.

In 2010, the government outlined three pillars for the energy sector: energy security, optimal energy pricing (with focus on accessibility), and development of a sustainable energy plan. The outcome document, Philippines Energy Plan 2012-2030, aims to ensure energy security, expand energy access, promote a low-carbon future and climate proofing the energy sector, increase investments in the energy sector, and stimulate the development of regional energy plans. The plan, divided into short term (2011-2015), medium term (2016-2020), and long term (2021-2030) phases, aims at tripling renewable energy by 2030.

Energy demand

In 2004, the Department of Energy (DOE) together with its attached agencies, the National Power Corporation (NCP), National Electrification Authority (NEA), Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC), Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation (PSALM), launched the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programme (NEECP). The NEECP aimed to strengthen the implementation of energy efficiency and conservation by promoting awareness on the efficient use of energy in the economy. Through the NEECP, every Filipino is encouraged to make energy conservation a way of life.

The DOE’s role has been strengthened further to ensure the delivery of secure, sustainable, sufficient, quality and environment-friendly energy to all sectors of society by mobilising private sector participation and involving other stakeholders. The government aims to reduce energy demand by 10% from 2010 to 2030.

There are currently three energy efficiency and conservation Bills filed in the Senate. The first aims to institutionalise energy efficiency and conservation, enhancing the efficient use of energy, and granting incentives to energy efficiency and conservation projects. The second aims to introduce an energy efficiency and conservation act to promote energy efficiency and conservation through the development of technologies, organisational relationships and reinforcement of related laws. The final bill aims to support the research and development of new industrial processes and technologies that optimise energy efficiency and environmental performance, use diverse sources of energy and increase economic competitiveness.

REDD+ and LULUCF

A national workshop on REDD+ was held in 2009 by several NGOs, which later formed the CoDe REDD2 Philippines. By 2010, a National REDD+ Strategy for the Philippines for 2008–2017 had been formulated, and has been included in the National Climate Change Action Plan.

In 2012, the DENR completed the delineation of the country’s forests. Once the data are validated, steps will be taken to anchor forest boundaries in legislation. After 15 years of being filed in Congress, the House of Representatives approved the Sustainable Management of Forests Act in 2012. It has been pending Senate approval since then. The Bill provides for sustainable management of forests, mitigation of climate change risks and reduction of poverty in forest areas.

The Philippine National REDD+ Strategy, published in 2010, presents a broad range of strategies and corresponding activities covering 2010 to 2020. It seeks to prepare forestlands managers throughout the country to assume responsibility in implementing REDD+ programmes, research projects and activities with the support of the international, national and local agencies, NGO’s and other support groups.

Transportation

In 2002, the Department of Energy initiated the Natural Vehicle Programme for Public Transport (NGVPPT). The programme included the reduction of Import duties on Compressed Gas Motor Vehicles and Natural Gas Vehicle Industry-Related Equipment, Parts and Components.

Adaptation

Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated the Philippines in 2013, served as a reminder of the country’s vulnerability to extreme weather events and climate change effects, and of the critical need for adaptation and disaster management policies and measures.

The Climate Change Commission has launched initiatives for climate resilient communities, under the Eco-Town Framework. Ten municipalities are in different stages of participating in demonstrating the Framework. The Commission also participates in several international adaptation initiatives, such as the Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Project (PhilCCAP), a five-year project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through the World Bank and co-financed by the government.

The enactment of the Philippine Disaster Reduction and Management Act of 2010 shifted the policy environment and the way the country deals with disasters from mere response to preparedness. The Act provides a comprehensive, all-hazard, multi-sectoral, inter-agency, and community-based approach to disaster risk management through the National Disaster Risk Management Framework. To develop this concept, a National Disaster Risk Management Plan (NDRMP) is being mandated to serve as the master plan that will provide the strategies, organisation, tasks of concerned agencies and local government units, and other guidelines in dealing with disasters or emergencies.

The Strategic National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction for 2009-2019 aims to enhance the capacities of Local Disaster Co-ordinating Councils, now referred to as Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils.

July 2014 saw the publication of Supplemental Guidelines in Mainstreaming Climate and Disaster Risks in the Comprehensive Land Use Plans. These guidelines support the national strategic priority on mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the development processes with emphasis on the formulation of climate- and risk-sensitive Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance.

The Department of Health National Framework of Action contextualises climate change issues in the country’s health system.

In re Greenpeace Southeast Asia et al., 2015-__ (Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines, 2015) (Opened in 2015 )

Citation/reference number: CHR-NI-2016-0001
Jurisdiction: Philippines
Core objective(s): Investigation into allegation that largest emitters have violated human rights of Filipinos by causing climate change and ocean acidification
Current status: open

Greenpeace Southeast Asia and numerous other organizations and individuals filed a petition asking the Commission to investigate a general issue—“the human rights implications of climate change and ocean acidification and the resulting rights violations in the Philippines”—and a more specific one—“whether the investor-owned Carbon Majors have breached their responsibilities to respect the rights of the…read more

Global Legal Action on Climate Change v. The Philippine Government (Opened in 2010 )

Citation/reference number: Special Civil Action, G.R. No. 191806
Jurisdiction: Philippines
Core objective(s): Local government officials' compliance with 1989 law relating to water provision and flood control
Current status: Decision pending

A group called Global Legal Action on Climate Change (GLACC) filed a petition with the Supreme Court of the Philippines seeking relief from dangers arising from flooding, which is expected to become worse and more consequential to Filipinos as climate change intensifies. Specifically, GLACC sought a writ of mandamus from the court that would order…read more

The legal system of the Philippines is a unique combination of civil law and common law, together with Islamic law and indigenous law. The current constitution, enacted in 1987, is the supreme law and defines the Philippines as a “democratic and republican state”, with the President heading the executive branch, the Congress as the legislative branch and the Supreme Court as the highest judicial body.

Congress is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (commonly known as the Lower House, but frequently referred to as the Congress), and the Senate (often referred to as the Upper House). The Senate is composed of 24 senators, who are elected by the entire electorate. Senators serve for six years each, with elections held every three years for half of them. Senators can serve no more than two consecutive terms. The House of Representatives is composed of approximately 250 congressmen, representing either geographical districts (provinces or cities) or different sectors. The latter represent no more than 20% of the House, and are referred to as party-list representatives. All members of the House are elected for three years, and for a maximum of three consecutive terms. Latest electioneer both the House of Representatives and the Senate were held in May 2016, next are expected for 2019.

Proposed laws are called bills and may be introduced by the Senate or by the House of Representatives. A bill goes through a first reading in which the number and title are read, after which it is referred to an appropriate committee, which prepares a committee report. It is then passed to the Rules committee, and returned for a second hearing, and is subject to debate and amendment before proceeding to the final third hearing. After passing in one House, the bill goes through the same process in the other House.

Major legislation is often introduced in both Houses in the form of companion (identical) bills, to speed up the legislative process by encouraging both chambers to consider the measure simultaneously, and to emphasise the urgency or importance of the issue. After it has passed in both Houses and been signed by their respective leaders, it goes for final approval to the President. The President may sign the bill into a law, or veto all or part of it. A presidential veto can be overridden by a Congressional vote of two thirds of all its members.

Another form of legislation, equivalent to a bill, is a Joint Resolution, generally used when dealing with a single item or issue, such as a continuing or emergency appropriations bill. Joint resolutions are also used to propose amendments to the Constitution.

Last modified 21 August, 2017