Pakistan Climate Change Act, 2017 ( 2017 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Pakistan Climate Change Act establishes the Pakistan Climate Change Council, headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of: The Ministers in charge of climate change, finance, agriculture, food security and research, planning, development and reform, petroleum and natural resources, science and technology, water and power and foreign affairs   Chief Ministers of the Provinces   Ministers-in-charge…read more

National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act 2016 ( 2016 )

The 2016 Act replaces the Pakistan Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act (2011) and keeps driving institutional development to improve energy efficiency, specifically mandating the creation of: the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (NEECA, transformed from former National Energy Conservation Centre - ENERCON); the Authority Fund; and the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Board. NEECA's functions include among…read more

Global Change Impact Studies Centre Act, 2013 ( 2013 )

This law establishes the Global Change Impact Studies Centre in Pakistan, whose task it is to study the impact of climate change in Pakistan. The Centre's specific duties are to: (1) prepare and submit project plans to its board of governors, (2) execute and implement approved project plans, (3) collaborate with national and international organizations to…read more

Alternative Energy Development Board Act ( 2010 )

The Act creates an Alternative and Renewable Energy Development Board. The text largely sets out the formal standing of the board, outlying its financial status and how to appoint members of the board etc. Specifically the functions of the board are to: – Develop national strategy, policies and plans for utilisation of alternative and renewable…read more

The National Disaster Management Act 2010 ( 2010 )

The National Disaster Management Act establishes the National Disaster Management Commission, chaired by the Prime Minister and composed of an array of chief officials at the executive, legislative, and provincial levels. The Commission is an institutionalisation of the coordination of the State response to man-made or natural catastrophes. It is also in charge of eventually…read more

The Pakistan Council of Renewable Technologies Act ( 2010 )

This Act legislates for institutional development by mandating the establishment of the Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies. The council will be responsible for promoting the development, acquisition, propagation and dissemination of renewable energy technologies. Specifically named technologies are: solar/photovoltaic; thermal, hydrogen, biogas/biomass, mini and micro hydro power; and wind technologies. The council will also…read more

Pakistan 2025: One Nation, One Vision ( 2014 )

This document presents the country’s strategy and road-map to reach national goals and aspirations. The ultimate goal envisioned is for Pakistan to be one of the 10 largest economies in the world by 2047. The following pillars of the vision meet elements of the millennium development goals (MDGs) and sustainable development goals (SDGs): - People…read more

National Power Policy ( 2013 )

This Policy is produced by the Ministry of Water and Power of the Government of Pakistan. It has been adopted to provide an overall direction of energy policy in Pakistan. It identifies current challenges as follows: – Current supply-demand gap of 4,500-5,000 MW, which has been continuously growing in the past 5 years – Expensive…read more

National Climate Change Policy ( 2012 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Policy identifies vulnerabilities to climate change in the sectors of water resources, agriculture, forestry, coastal areas, biodiversity and vulnerable ecosystems and spells out the appropriate adaptation measures to be adopted. It also puts forward appropriate measures concerning disaster preparedness, capacity building, institutional strengthening, technology transfer and international cooperation. The Policy provides a comprehensive framework…read more

National Forest Policy ( 2010 )

This policy (supported by caveats in the National Environment Policy) addresses the sustainable use of renewable natural resources. It acknowledges the multiple functions of Pakistan’s forests, such as carbon storage for climate change mitigation. However, there is a particularly strong focus on forests’ role in mountain areas where they provide protection from soil erosion and…read more

National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS): Pakistan’s pathway to a sustainable and resilient future ( 2010 )

The goal of the NSDS is “vibrant and equitable economic growth” that delivers benefits to all, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, in a way which does not lead to undue exploitation or degradation of natural resources. The need for the NSDS is stark since the country faces a series of significant challenges: Growth rates…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Up to 20% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the projected GHG emissions

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: N/A

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

12% total energy from renewables by 2022

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2022 | Base year: 2022 | Source(s): National S... (2010 / Executive)

Cut transmission and distribution losses to 16% (from undated baseline of 23-25%) by 2017

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2017 | Base year: 2017 | Source(s): National P... (2013 / Executive)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

increase in the forest cover from 6 to 10 percent by the year 2030. Large-scale tree plantation programmes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Green Pakistan Programme.

Afforestation | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Increase forest cover from 4.8% to 6.0% by 2015 against a 1990 baseline

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): National S... (2010 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Pakistan has been a party to the UNFCCC since 1994 and of the Kyoto Protocol since 2005. The first draft of the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) was published by the Ministry of Environment in April 2011, was adopted by the Parliament in 2012 and was officially launched in 2013. The Framework for Implementation of Climate Change Policy (2014-2030) was developed later in the same year to set out priority actions and implementation schedule for target sectors.

The NCCP was developed with extensive consulta­tion with Pakistan’s provinces, federal institutions and civil society. Its goal is “to ensure that climate change is mainstreamed in the economically and socially vulnerable sectors of the economy and to steer Pakistan towards climate-resilient development”. It will be subject to reviews and updates every five years by the Climate Change Policy Implementation Committees. The NCCP would help Pakistan to continue on a development path to achieve the goals envisioned in the Planning Commission’s Pakistan 2025 document.

The Prime Minister’s Committee on Climate Change (PMCCC) is an overarching body that monitors climate change-related developments both globally and domestically and provide overall climate policy guidance. The Global change Impact Studies Centre (GCIS) is the secretariat to the PMCCC. In 2012, the Ministry of National Disaster Management was renamed the Ministry of Climate Change and is mandated to address climate change in the country and co-ordinate with other relevant agencies and institutions. The NCCP Committee was established to ensure effective implementation of the climate policy and to oversee the progress in this regard. The Committee meets biannually and reports to the PMCCC on a regular basis. One of its tasks is the regular monitoring and upgrading of the NCCP at an interval of five years. The Committee is chaired by the Minister of Climate Change and will be integrated by the Secretaries responsible for climate change of other Ministries. These are: Planning and Development, Foreign Affairs, Industries and Produc­tion, Finance, Water and Power, Food and Agriculture, Health and Defence.

Energy Supply

Pakistan has experienced an energy crisis because of stalled reforms, energy shortages and financial deficit. Electricity sales rose by 40% in the five years to June 30, 2007, a period of high economic growth, while generation remained stagnant. Pakistan is a net importer of crude oil and refined products. In 2013, electricity was produced from oil (36%), natural gas (29%), hydropower (29%) and nuclear power (5%).

The Ministry of Water and Power has developed the National Power Policy (2013) to set out an overall energy policy. The goals of the Policy include building power generation capacity to ensure sustainable energy supply (decrease supply-demand gap from 4,500-5,000MW to 0MW by 2017) and generation of affordable electricity by using indigenous resources such as coal and hydro (decrease cost from PKR12 (USD0.11) per unit (unit unspecified) to PKR10 (USD0.09) by 2017).

In October 2014 Pakistan inaugurated its first high precision solar measuring station. This will be the first of many with 100MW of capacity currently being constructed and due to begin generating electricity in early 2015.

The World Bank and Pakistan’s Alternative Energy Development Board are working together to map renewable energy resources across the country. The project, supported by the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme, will measure Pakistan’s potential for wind, solar and biomass energy. A major part of this mapping initiative is to collect ground-based measurement data for up to two years. The data will then be used to improve the models, leading to the production of solar and wind atlases. These in turn can be used to set tariffs and guide the strategic development of renewable energy, and by commercial developers to carry out feasibility studies, leading to development of solar and wind power plants.

Energy Demand

The National Energy Conservation Authority (ENERCON) was established under the Pakistan Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act (2011) to initiate, co-ordinate and implement energy conservation programmes. In response to an inefficient power transmission and distribution system the National Power Policy (2013) aims to “develop the most efficient and consumer-centric power generation, transmission and distribution system”. The Policy aims to: create a culture of energy conservation and responsibility; promote world class efficiency in power generation; and minimise inefficiencies in the distribution system (decrease transmission and distribution loss from 23-25% to 16% by 2017).

REDD+ and LULUCF

Pakistan’s forest cover is small (4.8%) and the rate of deforestation is 0.2-0.4% per annum. The National Forestry Policy (2010) sets out to restore existing forests in addition to restoring deforested and degraded areas. There is a strong focus on watershed reforestation, which should confer additional benefits in terms of reduced downstream siltation; more stable river discharge; and benefits to hillside communities in terms of improved supplies of timber and non-timber products. The Pakistan 2025 policy states that the largest single abatement strategy is expected from preventing deforestation (25%), which will be achieved by greater awareness (especially among women and children in rural areas) and civil society pressure for law enforcement. The document displays the target of 6% increase in forest cover by 2030 through better watershed management and planting campaigns.

Transportation

According to Pakistan 2025, inefficiency in the transport system is estimated to have cost the economy 4-6% of GDP. The Policy sets out plans to establish an efficient and well-integrated transportation system to develop a competitive economy. Some of the major initiatives are: construction of major new motorways, efficient port handing and customs, replacement and doubling of railways tracks, new railway carriages and locomotives, modernisation of truck fleets, and mass transit system in metropolitan areas. The number of functional airports, including new ones, would be doubled to 50 by 2015.

Adaptation

The main focus of the Pakistan 2025 document is to promote mitigation and adaptation, in view of the high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change including degraded ecosystems and high levels of rural poverty, illiteracy and marginalisation of women. The policy document refers to mitigation measures for energy efficiency and conservation, transportation, forestry, industry, agriculture, livestock and town planning.

Besides the national measures that are laid out in Pakistan 2025 and the NCCP, Pakistan has been running projects on disaster risk management and climate change adaptation under the funding and guidance from the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) managed by the World Bank. It is one of the priority countries within the GFDRR and key programmes include the Development of a National Platform for Risk Assessment and Catastrophe Risk Financing (USD500,000 between 2012 and 2015) and Flood Emergency Preparedness (USD280,000 between 2010 and 2011). The priorities for GFDRR engagements are: analysis and advocacy for enhanced understanding of risk and their long-term impacts; disaster prevention; emergency preparedness; emergency response operations; and advancement of risk financing mechanisms. Key partners include the UN, South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC), Australia, EU, Japan, United Kingdom and the United States.

Maria Khan et al. v. Federation of Pakistan et al. (Opened in 2018 )

Citation/reference number: No. 8960 of 2019
Jurisdiction: Pakistan
Core objective(s): Whether the government of Pakistan's inaction on climate change violated the constitutional rights of women and future generations including the right to a healthy environment and a climate capable of supporting human life
Current status: open

A coalition of women filed a constitutional petition on their behalf and on behalf of future generations against the Federation of Pakistan. They allege that the federal government’s inaction on climate change violated their fundamental rights including the right to a clean and healthy environment and a climate capable of sustaining human life, (a right…read more

Sheikh Asim Farooq v. Federation of Pakistan etc. (Opened in 2018 )

Citation/reference number: W.P. No. 192069/2018
Jurisdiction: Pakistan
Core objective(s): To determine whether the government of Pakistan violated its obligations under natural resource, climate change, and other policies by allowing large-scale deforestation
Current status: closed

Members of civil society filed suit against Pakistan, (impleading several departments including the Planning and Development Department, Punjab Environmental Protection Department, and Housing & Urban Development Department), for failure to plant, protect, manage, preserve, and conserve the trees and forests in Punjab in violation of statutory obligations and petitioners’ constitutional rights. Petitioners requested a writ…read more

Ali v. Federation of Pakistan (Supreme Court of Pakistan 2016) (Opened in 2016 )

Citation/reference number: Constitutional Petition No. ___ / I of 2016
Jurisdiction: Pakistan
Core objective(s): Injunction against development of Thar Coalfield
Current status: Decision pending

Rabab Ali, a 7-year-old girl who lives in Karachi, is the named petitioner in a challenge to various actions and inactions on the part of Pakistan’s federal government and on the part of the Province of Sindh (where Karachi is located). The Petition, filed directly with the country’s Supreme Court, alleges violations of constitutionally protected…read more

Ashgar Leghari v. Federation of Pakistan (Lahore High Court Green Bench 2015) (Opened in 2015 )

Citation/reference number: (2015) W.P. No. 25501/201
Jurisdiction: Pakistan
Core objective(s): Farmer challenged government for failure to carry out core provisions of 2012 law.
Current status: open

An appellate court in Pakistan granted the claims of Ashgar Leghari, a Pakistani farmer, who had sued the national government for failure to carry out the 2012 National Climate Policy and Framework. On September 4, 2015 the court, citing domestic and international legal principles, determined that "the delay and lethargy of the State in implementing…read more

The Democratic Islamic Federal Republic of Pakistan has a bicameral parliament. This is composed of the Senate or Upper House and the National Assembly or Lower House. The Senate has 104 seats and members are indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms. One half of the representatives are elected every three years. The last Senate election was held in March 2012 and the next one is expected to take place in 2015. The National Assembly has 342 seats of which 272 members are elected for five-year terms by popular vote. There are 60 seats reserved for women and 10 seats for non-Muslims. The last election for the National Assembly was held in May 2013 and the next one is expected to be held in 2018.

The President is elected by both Houses of Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies. The Prime Minister, who heads the Cabinet, belongs to the National Assembly. Members of the Cabinet are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Cabinet members are taken from the National Assembly (75%) and the Senate (25%).

A bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either House. If the House passes a Bill through majority vote, it is transmitted to the other House. If the other House passes it without amendment, it is then presented to the President for assent.

However, if the bill is not passed within 90 days or is rejected by the non-originating House, it is considered in a joint sitting summoned by the President on the request of the House in which the bill was originated. If the bill is passed in the joint sitting by the majority of the members of the two Houses, it is presented to the President for assent. If the bill is presented to the President, a decision to assent should be made within 10 days. However if after 10 days no statement of assent has been made, it is deemed to have been given.

Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate directly for the provinces where there is a request made by those provinces. If the Federal Govern­ment proclaims a State of Emergency in any province, the power to legislate over that province is also then vested in the Parliament. However, bills passed by the Parliament during a State of Emergency remain in force only for six months after the State of Emergency is lifted. Actions taken during a State of Emergency remain valid once the crisis has passed.

Last modified 22 August, 2017