Regulations on feed-in-tariff for renewable energy sourced electricity in Nigeria 2015 ( 2015 )

The feed-in tariff regulation builds on the Electric Power Sector Reform Act 2005 that opened up the sector to competition and supports small producers, It aims to make use of Nigeria's vast potential for renewable energy by stimulating private investment. It specifies that a total of 1,000MW by 2018 and 2,000 MW by 2020 should be generated through renewables…read more

Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (2017-2020) ( 2017 )

The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan aims at fostering sustainable economic development in Nigeria over the period 2017 to 2020. It is a transversal strategic document that edicts detailed measures, notably in the sector of climate change adaptation, renewable energy production and use, energy efficiency and, land degradation and desertification.…read more

National Policy on Climate Change ( 2013 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The National Policy on Climate Change is a strategic policy response to climate change that aims to foster low-carbon, high growth economic development path and build a climate-resilient society through the attainment of set targets. The plan explicitly identifies climate change as one of the major threats to economic development goals and food security. To…read more

Nigeria Vision 2020 ( 2010 )

Vision 2020 aims to reduce the impact of climate change on development processes and the environment. It would (i) strengthen environmental governance; (ii) promote environmental education; (iii) optimise economic benefits from sustainable environmental management. Concrete climate policy targets formulated under Vision 2020 are: • Increase the share of the energy mix of hydro-power to 25%…read more

Nigerian Biofuel and Incentives ( 2007 )

The policy aims to help develop the biofuel industry in order to gradually reduce the dependence on imported gasoline, reduce GHG emissions while promoting economic development. Concrete measures include the introduction of a biofuel blend (10% ethanol) and various measures aimed at stimulating market demand for biofuels and promoting their production (e.g. tax exemptions). The…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

20% (unconditional) to 45% (conditional) reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the BAU scenario

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

12% forest cover by 2015, then 18% by 2020

Afforestation | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2015, 2020 | Source(s): Nigeria Vi... (2010 / Executive)

12% forest cover by 2015, then 18% by 2020

Afforestation | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2015, 2020 | Source(s): Nigeria Vi... (2010 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

2% energy efficiency improvement per year

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

End gas flaring by 2030

Gas Flaring | Target year: 2030

Blending 10% by volume of Fuel-Ethanol with Gasoline (E10); Blending 20% by volume of Biodiesel with Petroleum Diesel (B20) for Transportation Fuels

Renewable Energy: Biofuels

13 GW of PV

Renewable Energy: Solar: Off-Grid

Source: NDC

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

National efforts to address climatic change are guided by a number of principles including the following: (1) Strategic climate change response is consistent with national development priorities; (2) Climate change is addressed within the framework of sustainable development, which ensures that climate change response must be sensitive to issues of equity, gender, youth, children and other vulnerable groups; (3) The use of energy as a key driver for high economic  growth is pursued within the broad context of sustainable development; (4) Mitigation and adaptation are integral components of the policy response and strategy to cope with climate change; (5) Climate change policy is integrated with other policies to promote economic and environmental efficiency; (6) Climate change is cross-cutting and demands integration across the work programmes of several government ministries/agencies/parastatals and stakeholders, and across sectors of industry, business and the community; (7) Climate change response provides viable entrepreneurship opportunities.

Since the submission of its first national report to the UNFCCC in 2003, Nigeria has made some progress on climate change governance. In its current national development plan (Vision 2020), the government recognises climate change as threatening its economic prosperity and future development. For improving policy formulation and co-ordination in this area, the Ministry of the Environment created a Special Climate Change Unit which recently has been transformed into the Department of Climate Change. Last year, the Department signed a co-operation agreement with Germany and nine other West African Countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Gambia, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo) to collaborate in the review and development of climate change policies. In 2013, the Federal Executive Council (cabinet) approved the agreement for ratification. The collaboration will take place within the framework of the newly created West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). In 2008, two competing bills were introduced into Parliament with the aim of improving the ability to set, co-ordinate, and implement climate change policies. The first bill proposed the creation of a climate change agency with close ties to the Ministry of the Environment, while the second bill aimed to create an independent National Commission on Climate Change. However, both bills became trapped in the legislative process. In 2010, Parliament passed the so-called Commission Bill, but it did not receive assent by the President. The current parliament re-introduced the bill and, again, it has been passed by the lower chamber (House of Representatives) and is at the second reading stage at the upper chamber (Senate). The bill, if passed into law by the Senate, would formally establish a robust institution/agency to shoulder the full responsibility of climate change governance, building on the work the climate change department of the Federal Ministry of Environment is doing. The House Committee on Climate Change is also working on a Climate Change law that would address synergy between the various agencies of government in mainstreaming climate change into their development planning.

Besides these efforts to improve the country’s institutional capacity to deal with climate change, there have been several policy initiatives with relevance to climate change. For example, since 2007, civil society organisations and international donor organisations have been working together to identify climate change vulnerabilities and develop a comprehensive adaptation strategy. In 2011, these efforts resulted in the publication of the National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change for Nigeria (NASPA-CNN). The Strategy outlines responses to climate change in key areas such as agriculture (crops and livestock), freshwater resources, coastal water resources and fisheries, forests, biodiversity, health and sanitation, human settlements and housing, energy, transportation and communications, industry and commerce, disaster, migration and security, livelihoods, vulnerable groups, and education. However, the policy document did not find official support. Instead, in 2012, the Executive Council approved the adoption of a National Climate Change Policy and Response Strategy (NCCP-RS). NCCP-RS aims to provide a framework for responding to climate change-induced challenges such as increased flooding and rising sea levels. There are also plans to create a National Strategic Climate Change Trust Fund and develop a National Appropriate Mitigation Action document. In 2013, a National Policy on Climate Change was finally approved and adopted by the Federal Executive Council. This will form the basis for any new climate change law.

Energy supply

Under its current development plan (Vision 2020), the government has set targets to promote the production and use of renewable energy. These include wind, solar, hydro, and biomass. The Vision 2020 includes plans to construct several solar and hydro power plants. The Ministry of the Environment has announced plans to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020. Several government documents and sources also mention the development of a Renewable Energy Master Plan for Nigeria. However, the process of realising the above targets is still under way. The government adopted a national biofuel policy in 2007, which aims to create an enabling environment for the country’s biofuel sector. A Biofuel Energy Commission and a Biofuel Research Agency have been established, as well as tax exemptions and other incentives for biofuel producers. More recently, the Federal Government announced that it had concluded plans to launch a National Policy on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Once finalised, the Policy will provide the framework and create an institutional focal point for all national efforts on renewable energy and energy efficiency. As part of a wider effort to promote renewable energy, the President set an aspirational target of 30GW to be reached within the next decade.

Energy demand

In the past, Nigeria has worked with international donors to improve its energy efficiency. In 2011, the government entered a partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme and the Global Environmental Facility to promote energy efficiency in the residential and public sectors. Concrete measures include outreach and training programmes as well as the distribution of 1 million compact florescent lamps in residential and public buildings. There has also been assistance to develop national legislation in the area of energy efficiency, including the Clean Technology Fund’s (CTF) support of energy efficiency projects. The CTF Investment Plan envisages a total of USD1.3bn to support low-carbon growth objectives.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Nigeria has one of the highest deforestation rates in the world. According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation, the country lost 55.7% of its primary forests between 2000 and 2005. To protect its forests, Nigeria has adopted a number of acts and laws. The legislation that most directly addresses deforestation is the Natural Conservation Act of 1989. Nigeria’s Vision 2020 includes measures to reduce the rate of deforestation such as a target to increase forest cover from currently 6% to 10%. However, no clear timeframe is provided. The 2012 Appropriation Act called for the provision of clean stoves and cooking fuels to discourage tree felling for use in traditional cooking methods. The country also entered into a partnership agreement with the United Nations REDD Programme in 2010.

Adaptation

The constitution states that “the State shall protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wildlife of Nigeria”. However, there is currently no explicit climate change adaptation legislation in place. Recently the Ministry of the Environment has joined forces with civil society actors and international donors for the Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change (BNRCC) project. In 2011, the BNRCC produced the NASPA-CCN, which identifies climate change vulnerabilities and contains guidance to develop a comprehensive climate change adaptation strategy. Vision 2020 also includes a number of concrete adaptation targets such as the establishment of a 1,500km “green wall” in 11 states bordering the Sahara to reduce the rate and speed of desertification. A number of policy approaches will provide an organising framework to develop and implement sectoral strategies, measures and initiatives for effective adaptation responses. These include: (1) Generate adequate energy from a mix of sources for rapid socio-economic development without significantly increasing the country’s GHG emissions; (2) Continuously reduce GHG emissions in all sectors, particularly in the oil and gas, and transportation sectors; (3) Enhance food security, reduce poverty and promote healthy living for all Nigerians; (4) Integrate disaster risk management of climate-related hazards into development.

Gbemre v. Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd et al. (Federal Court of Nigeria, 2005) (Opened in 2005 )

Citation/reference number: FHC/B/CS/53/05
Jurisdiction: Nigeria
Core objective(s): Challenge to the practice of gas flaring in the Niger Delta by oil and gas companies
Current status: Decided

A Nigerian federal court ruled that oil companies must stop flaring gas in the Niger Delta. Jonah Gbemre, a representative of the Iwherekan community in the Niger Delta filed suit against the Nigerian government and Shell. The court held that the practice of gas flaring is unconstitutional as it violates the guaranteed fundamental rights of…read more

Nigeria features a bicameral legislature (the National Assembly), modelled after the political system of the United States. The National Assembly is divided into an upper house (Senate) and a lower house (House of Representatives). The Senate has 109 members, three from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja. Every four years, senators are elected in a popular vote. The House of Representatives has 360 members who are elected for a four-year term, using a simple majority (first-past-the-post) system.

The last general elections (house, senate, and presidential elections) took place in March 2015. The next general elections will be held in 2019.

Proposed laws are called bills and can be introduced either to the Senate or the House. After its introduction in the legislative process, a bill is reviewed by a relevant committee, then referred to the National Assembly. In a sequence of three readings, the bill is discussed and modifications can be made. A bill is passed by a simple majority of the upper and lower house, which vote independently from one another. In order to formally complete the legislative process, acts have to be signed by the President (Presidential Assent).

Last modified 14 September, 2017