This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Delta Act on Water Safety and Fresh Water Supply (Delta Act) ( 2012 )

This Act is designed to protect the country from risks associated with sea level rise, soil subsidence, drier periods and extreme rainfall. It establishes the following (so-called 5 Dutch Ds together with the Delta Act): • Delta Programme • Delta Fund • Delta Commissioner • Delta Decisions The Delta Programme (DP) aims to secure water…read more

Crisis and Recovery Act ( 2010 )

This bill was introduced in March 2010 to promote economic recovery after the financial crisis. Its main instruments focus on accelerating decision-making processes and administrative court proceedings on various activities beneficial to economic growth and employment, especially in sustainability, green energy and innovation. These include construction of housing, wind farms, small scale wind turbines, as…read more

Heat Act ( 2009 )

The Heat Act's last revisions encourage the supply and use of renewable energy by modifying the scope of the original document to ease the administrative burden on sustainable heat suppliers. A favourable tariff scheme will enter into force on January 1, 2020.…read more

Environmental Management Act 2004 ( 2004 )

In fields such as environmental permits, CO2 emissions trading, waste prevention, water quality and landfill policy, most environmental regulations affecting GHG emissions are based on the Environmental Management Act. It is also the legal basis to enforce commitments by companies not covered under the ETS that are undertaken within Long-Term Agreements and the Benchmarking Covenant.…read more

Electricity Act ( 1998 )

The Electricity Act (E-Act) 1998 is an important basis for the creation of the electricity market in the Netherlands. By establishing this market, producers and suppliers of electricity were able to offer electricity on a market. On April 9, 2018, the Energy Transition Act (wet VET) was adopted to amend the 1998 document and the…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Offshore Wind Energy Roadmap 2030 ( 2018 )

This roadmap is set out by the Dutch Ministry for the Economy and Climate to foster new offshore wind generation in the country by 2030. The plan sets out a target of additional capacity of 4.5 GW to be added by 2023 and 7 GW between 2024 and 2030. The document also deals with grid…read more

Energy Agenda: Towards a Low-Carbon Energy Supply ( 2017 )

The Energy Agenda describes the choices to be made and the steps to be taken towards a low-carbon energy supply in 2050.  The transition path towards 2050 and the associated policy efforts and other efforts are outlined for each functionality: low-temperature heat, high-temperature heat, power and light and transport. The Agenda is based on overarching themes for…read more

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan ( 2017 )

This fourth National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the Netherlands has been drawn up pursuant to the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27 /EU). It contains a description of measures to promote energy efficiency in the Netherlands, a calculation of the expected savings and other reporting obligations. The Plan was established under the responsibility of the Minister of Economic…read more

National Climate Adaptation Strategy ( 2016 / Adaptation Framework )

This National Climate Adaptation Strategy introduces various new initiatives and will accelerate the progress of ongoing initiatives in the Netherlands. The NAS uses four diagrams (‘Hotter’, ‘Wetter’, ‘Drier’ and ‘Rising Sea Level’) to visualize the effects of climate change within nine sectors: water and spatial management; nature; agriculture, horticulture and fisheries; health and welfare; recreation…read more

National Climate Agenda: Resilient, Prosperous and Green ( 2013 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Climate Agenda for 2030 outlines a climate approach focused on assembling a broadly-based coalition for climate measures and on a combined approach to climate adaptation (by designing a resilient physical environment and preparing society for the consequences of climate change) and mitigation (by reducing greenhouse gas emissions). It reaffirms the Dutch commitment to achieve…read more

Energy Report ( 2011 )

This document is prepared by the government every four years to establish energy and climate policies. In 2011, the government presented the latest version of the Energy Report, which outlined the ambition to become more sustainable in energy and less dependent on fossil fuels in the transition to a low-carbon economy by 2050. As presented…read more

National Programme for Spatial Adaptation to Climate Change (ARK), Implementation via the National Adaptation Strategy ( 2007 / Adaptation Framework )

The Programme recognises that the Netherlands needs to adapt to the unavoidable consequences of climate change and attempt at the same time to realise co-benefits for other sectors. It follows three areas of priority: Raising awareness, forming networks and developing strategy. This is to be achieved via communication of the climate change problem, involvement of…read more

New Energy for Climate Policy: The Clean and Efficient Programme (CEP) ( 2007 )

The CEP was established with three main objectives: setting and implementing firm targets for reducing GHG emissions, increasing the share or renewable energy and improving energy efficiency. It also established specific targets to: • reduce GHG emissions by 30% from the 1990 level by 2020 (more ambitious than the corresponding EU target) • increase the…read more

Energy Investment Tax Deduction Scheme (WEM) ( 1997 )

Provides a direct financial advantage to companies investing in sustainable energy and energy-saving equipment. The Energy Investment Tax Deduction scheme allows entrepreneurs to deduct 44% of the purchase/production costs for energy-saving equipment from their company’s profits for the year in which the equipment was purchased, up to EUR113m (USD175m) annually.…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

80-95% cut in GHG by 2050 compared with a business as usual scenario

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): Energy Rep... (2011 / Executive), National E... (2017 / Executive)

Carbon neutrality by 2050

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2050 | Source(s): National E... (2017 / Executive)

40% cut in GHG emissions by 2030 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): National C... (2013 / Executive), National E... (2017 / Executive)

40% cut in CO2, then 80-95% by 2030, 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

40% cut in CO2, then 80-95% by 2030, 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

25 Mt CO2e reduced (-17%) by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

25 Mt CO2e reduced (-17%) by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

14% share of renewables by 2020, then 16% by 2023

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: 2020, 2023 | Source(s): Energy Rep... (2011 / Executive), National E... (2017 / Executive)

27% renewable energy by 2030

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

27% renewable energy by 2030

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

1.5% savings of final energy consumption by 2023

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2023 | Base year: 2023 | Source(s): Energy Rep... (2011 / Executive)

27% energy efficiency by 2030

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

27% energy efficiency by 2030

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

15-20 PJ total energy conserved by 2020 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

15-20 PJ total energy conserved by 2020 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

30% energy efficiency by 2020

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National E... (2017 / Executive)

20% cut in energy consumption by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): National E... (2017 / Executive)

1.5% annual energy consumption savings by 2020

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National E... (2017 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

All new passenger cars at zero emissions by 2035, all passenger cars at zero emissions by 2050

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2035, 2050 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

All new passenger cars at zero emissions by 2035, all passenger cars at zero emissions by 2050

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 2035, 2050 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

60% cut in CO2e in transportation by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

General | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

60% cut in CO2e in transportation by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

General | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Law on Ene... (2017 / Legislative)

60% cut in GHG from transport by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

General | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Energy Rep... (2011 / Executive)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

The Netherlands is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to its high population density, river deltas and its location at and below sea level. The country has, therefore, particular interest in flood management and resiliency building. The approach to climate change combines adaptation and mitigation measures integrated within the overall objective of sustainable development.

As an EU member state, the Netherlands’ climate policy is largely determined by agreements at the European level, such as the decision on burden-sharing of the EU’s Kyoto Protocol commitments and the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), as well as European legislation regarding renewable energy, energy efficiency and the overall 2020 emission reduction target. Although the Netherlands has a number of climate programmes, there is no law dedicated to climate change. Instead, most policies and programmes have their legal basis in the Environmental Management Act. However, in June 2014, a proposal for an Environmental Act was submitted to the House of Representatives and is expected to enter into force by 2018. It should simplify the existing complex and fragmented environmental legislation, and integrate 26 different laws and regulations, including the Spatial Planning Act, the Water Act and the Crisis and Recovery Act. It is expected to reduce administrative burdens and shortened procedures (for example for permitting).

The National Climate Agenda (2013) sets out the country’s three main themes and eight associated actions to tackle climate change: broadly-based coalitions of companies and public players globally, regionally and nationally; mitigation; and adaptation. Priority sectors for climate policy are energy efficiency in new and existing buildings and reducing emissions from agriculture and industry.

The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment is the co-ordinating body of programmes and policies related to climate change.

Energy Supply

Although some progress has been made towards a sustainable energy transition, the energy mix continues to be dominated by fossil fuels. Natural gas supplies 47% of energy needs and oil 38%, up from 35% in 1990. The country has invested heavily in fossil power generation, particularly gas- and coal-fired capacity.

The Netherlands plans to meet its future energy needs using all fuels, including nuclear, and increasing renewable energy from the 4% it represented in 2010 to 14% by 2020. The Intergovernmental Wind Energy Agreement (BLOW) under the CEP aims to increase onshore wind power capacity to 6,000 MW by 2020. Subsidies for investments in renewable energy are channelled via the Stimulating Renewable Energy Production (SDE) scheme, which replaced the Environmentally Friendly Electricity Production Programme (MEP) in 2008. It puts a ceiling on subsidies based on estimates of electricity and gas prices.

In September 2013 around 40 private and public parties reached a covenant on the development of renewable growth. The Energy Agreement implemented a comprehensive climate and energy policy programme aimed at long-term sustainability and set out agreed short to medium-term measures in 10 pillars. One of these pillars was the increase of renewable energy production from the current 4.3% to 14% in 2020. The agreement identified the need for additional wind farm projects to be developed to reach a total of 4,450MW by 2023 (with 1,000MW already in place or under construction). The government allocated a maximum of EUR18bn (USD22.6bn) to subsidies for renewable energy (SDE+) for offshore wind, commensurate with these targets. The full amount will be committed before 2020 to account for a wind farm construction period of four years.

In October 2014 the Minister of Economic Affairs submitted a legislative proposal for offshore wind to Parliament. The bill implements an important part of the roadmap for reaching the targets set in the Energy Agreement. The roadmap provides for a new roll-out schedule of 700MW of offshore wind capacity per year for five consecutive years; an offshore grid (‘socket on the sea’); the repeal of previously granted licences; newly designated licence areas; and a new combined application procedure for a licence and SDE+. In parallel, a revision of the Gas Act and Electricity Act 1998 is on the legislative agenda and expected to be submitted as a legislative proposal in early 2015.

Carbon pricing

The Netherlands participates as an EU Member State and Annex-1 party to the Kyoto Protocol both in the EU ETS and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as the Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol. Relevant legislation in these areas implements commitments made at the international and EU level.

The Netherland is expected to raise own contribution to climate finance from EUR200m (USD310.5m) in 2013 to EUR1.2bn (USD1.86bn) by 2020. The Government aims to fund at least 50% of this budget to come from private sources under the coalition agreement. The country also contributes to climate funds that finance climate adaptation and mitigation in developing countries, which includes the Climate Investment Funds, the Least Developed Countries Fund and the upcoming Green Climate Fund.

Energy Demand

The Netherlands has a number of laws and policies in place that reduce CO2 emissions by improving industrial efficiency, including measures that implement the Environmental Management Act and the Energy Investment Tax Deduction regime under the corporate tax system. Measures to reduce energy demand are usually formulated in long-term agreements. These include the sustainable production of energy for electricity and heat, including the use of biomass. Energy efficiency efforts have focused on industry, buildings, transport and agriculture. Most measures were initiated under the 2007 Clean and Efficient Programme (CEP) at the national level or the Stimulating Local Climate Initiatives remittance scheme at the local level. Currently, the Energy Agreement and Climate Agenda act as the main frameworks.

Legislation in the building sector consists of both implementing EU directives and further national development. Relevant EU directives are the Eco-design directive and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Targets include improving energy efficiency by up to 50% and constructing energy neutral new buildings by 2020. These objectives are detailed in the Build Environment Innovation Agenda. Measures include financial instruments such as subsidy schemes, lowering VAT for insulating glazing, tailor-made energy advice, energy investment tax deductions, implementing EU legislation such as the mandatory Energy Performance Certificate, and setting a standard for privately-owned buildings by making new government buildings 25% more energy efficient than official requirements and striving for CO2-neutral government buildings via purchasing CO2-neutral energy.

REDD+ and LULUCF

According to the Sixth National Communication to the UNFCCC (2013), development of a nature network called the National Ecological Network (also known as Nature Network Netherlands) has been a central theme of the nature and forest policy for the Netherlands. It is a “cohesive network of high-quality nature wetland and terrestrial reserves” and 560,000 ha of such network was completed by 2011. An additional 80,000 ha will be converted into nature reserves by 2027 through afforestation and reforestation. These are managed in adherence to the principles of sustainable forest management.

Transportation

Key legislation to reduce emissions in transportation includes the implementation of European directives on biofuels. The Dutch legislation implements the European Renewable Energy Directive target of 10% renewable energy in transport in 2020 (road vehicles and mobile machines) and places targets for the coming years.

Fiscal policy with more favorable tax regime for efficient cars is in place. When registering a new passenger vehicle or motorcycle, a tax has to be paid calculated on the basis of absolute CO2 emissions. The lower the CO2 emissions, the less tax is paid – in some cases tax exemptions apply. Consumers are thus encouraged to buy environmentally friendly cars.

Electric vehicles are supported in order to further increase emission efficiency. Under the framework of MIA/Vamil (tax refund on environmental investment), electric cars are eligible for support through the Action Plan Electric Mobility if CO2 emissions are lower than 50g/km. The overall policy goal is 15,000-20,000 electric cars in 2015 and 1m by 2025; in 2012 there were 4,000 registered electric vehicles in the Netherlands.

The Lean and Green programme started in 2008 to support transport companies to reduce carbon footprint. A “Lean and Green Award” is given to organisations working to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% in five years’ time. If the objective in the plan of action is actually achieved, the organisation is awarded a Lean and Green Star.

Adaptation

The Netherlands contributes to climate change adaptation internally and internationally. The Delta Programme is a showcase project for the Netherlands to protect the country against current and future flooding and to ensure sufficient supply of freshwater. This Programme is a national joint venture that bridges the central government, provincial and municipal authorities, water boards, civil society organizations and business community. The latest since its inception in 2011, the Fifth Delta Programme (2015) contains measures to improve flood protection and reduce water shortages.

The 2006 National Programme for Spatial Adaptation to Climate Change (ARK) is another key adaptation project, which is a joint effort of national and local government departments. The National Adaptation Strategy resulted from this programme in 2007. According to National Climate Agenda, the Cabinet has opted for three-pronged approaches to climate change and adoption is one of the three approaches; actions for climate adaptation include publication of a Climate-proof City Charter (part of the Delta Programme) to covenant stakeholders, incorporation of climate adaptation provisions in the government guidelines (“Guidance for the objectivity of planning”) and the Healthy Urbanisation project by the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment to connect people, ideas and knowledge for a liveable, secure, assessable and climate-adapting society. The Government is working on an adaptation strategy, which is due to be translated into a new National Adaptation Strategy by 2017.

Climate change mitigation and adaptation are major themes for international development co-operation policy. International development programmes that aim to: reduce carbon emission by increasing the use of sustainable energy and preventing deforestations; and to adapt to climate change in water and agricultural sectors; have been supported by the Dutch government.

Milieudefensie et al. v. Royal Dutch Shell plc. (Opened in 2019 )

Citation/reference number: 90046903
Jurisdiction: Netherlands
Core objective(s): Whether a private company violated a duty of care and human rights obligations by failing to take adequate action to curb contributions to climate change
Current status: open

On Monday, April 5th, 2019, the environmental group Milieudefensie/Friends of the Earth Netherlands and co-plaintiffs served Shell a court summons alleging Shell’s contributions to climate change violate its duty of care under Dutch law and human rights obligations. The case was filed in the Hague Court of Appeals. Co-plaintiffs include other NGOs (ActionAid NL, Both…read more

Urgenda Foundation v. State of the Netherlands (Opened in 2015 )

Citation/reference number: [2015] HAZA C/09/00456689
Jurisdiction: The Netherlands
Core objective(s): Seeking declaratory judgment and injunction to compel the Dutch government to reduce GHG emissions
Current status: appealed

A Dutch environmental group, the Urgenda Foundation, and 900 Dutch citizens sued the Dutch government to require it to do more to prevent global climate change. The court in the Hague ordered the Dutch state to limit GHG emissions to 25% below 1990 levels by 2020, finding the government’s existing pledge to reduce emissions 17%…read more

As a constitutional monarchy, the key institutions in the Netherland’s legislative process are the Upper House (Senate) of the Parliament, with 75 members elected by the 12 provinces, and the Lower House (House of Representatives) with 150 directly elected members. Elections for both Houses take place at least every four years. Senate elections last took place in 2011 and the next is planned for 2015. The last election for the House of Representatives was held in 2012 and the next is expected to take place in 2016. Besides the national government, the provinces and 441 municipalities are also major actors, particularly in implementing the outcomes of the legislative process.

Legislation can be introduced by one or more members of the government or one or more members of the Lower House. Draft laws (bills) usually originate from recommendations either by a royal commission or a parliamentary committee. Once the preparatory work is completed by one or more ministries, the bill is discussed in the Cabinet. If accepted, it is sent to the Monarch’s secretariat, in their capacity as Head of State. From there the bill is sent to the Council of State (of which the Monarch is the President) for advice. This body chiefly pays attention to the legal quality of the bill and generally does not concern itself with political merit. Its report is sent directly to the relevant Minister(s) who, in turn, must respond with a more detailed report to the Monarch. The bill is then presented to the Lower House, which consigns the bill to a committee, where it is discussed and potentially amended, before being debated in plenary and then passed to the Upper House. The Upper House has no right of amendment; it must either accept or reject the bill. Once the Monarch and Minister(s) responsible have signed the Act, it is published in the Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees. Unless the Act decrees otherwise, it comes into force on the first day of the second calendar month following its date of publication.

Last modified 14 September, 2017