Law 15/2014 Establishing the Framework for Disaster Management, Including Prevention and Mitigation ( 2014 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

Serves as the framework law for disaster prevention, mitigation, and management and emphasises the importance of strategic readiness and systematic preparedness to prevent the impacts of climate change, reducing vulnerability to disasters. Defines strategic readiness as including the identification of climate change impacts, as well as necessary legislation and education to mitigate these impacts. Directs…read more

2013-2025 National Strategy for Climate Change (ENMC) ( 2013 )

The National Climate Change Strategy aims to reduce vulnerability to climate change and improve the living conditions of the Mozambican people. It proposes climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures and also focuses on mitigation by targeting low carbon development. The ENMC is structured around three core themes: (i) adaptation and climate risk management;…read more

Decree 70/2013 Regulating Procedures for Project Approval for the Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forestry Degradation (REDD ) ( 2013 )

Outlines the procedures governing REDD+ projects and creates a Technical Unit of REDD+ (TU-REDD+), responsible for the implementation of REDD+ activities but subordinate to the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Agriculture. Directs the TU-REDD+ to: • Develop regulations governing its operation • Implement REDD+ strategy • Develop and implement procedures for trading…read more

Decree No. 58/2011 approving the Regulation on biofuels ( 2011 )

Explicitly defines biofuels and their numerous variations and outlines the rules and regulations to govern the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of biofuels and their mixtures. Requires the provision of a licence from the Ministry of Energy for the production of biofuels by an entity that annually produces more than 5,000 litres of biofuel, not…read more

Presidential Decree No. 7/2011 creating the Inter-ministerial Commission of Biofuels ( 2011 )

Creates the Inter-ministerial Commission on Biofuels (CIB) to coordinate, supervise, and monitor the implementation of the Biofuels Policy and Strategy, enacted in May 2009. Outlines the responsibilities of the Commission, including: • The promotion of research, development, and innovation in biofuels • To encourage and support material recycling initiatives of animal and vegetable greases •…read more

Strategy for New and Renewable Development 2011-2025 ( 2011 )

/Developed and adopted pursuant to Resolution 62/2009 this strategy aims to sustainably diversify Mozambique’s energy mix to include renewable resources in order to meet domestic demand for energy, while protecting the environment of Mozambique. Outlines the following three central objectives of the strategy: (i) improving access to energy services through renewables (ii) developing renewable energy…read more

Ministerial Decree 277/2009 approving the Rules of the National Directorate of New and Renewable Energy ( 2009 )

Creates a new National Directorate for New and Renewable Energy within the Ministry of Energy (DNER) responsible for the design, promotion, evaluation and implementation of policies under the new and renewable energy sector. Outlines the structure of the DNER, led by a National Director, as well as the explicit function and duties of the DNER,…read more

National Biofuels Policy and Strategy ( 2009 )

The Biofuels Policy and Strategy aims to strengthen the production of biofuels, establishing general guidelines for the development of the sector. The document adopts an Action Plan, identifying specific measures to be taken in the first five years following the entry into force of the Policy/Strategy. The Plan calls for the institution and is the…read more

Policy on the Development of New and Renewable Energy (resolution 62/2009) ( 2009 )

Builds upon the New Policy for Energy and serves as a framework for the promotion and development of renewable energy. Outlines definitions for types of renewable generation sources including: biomass, bioenergy, biofuels, thermal energy, hydroelectric power, wind energy, ocean energy and geothermal energy. Provides a current assessment of the status of the renewable energy mix.…read more

Resolution No. 10/2009 approving the New Policy on Energy ( 2009 )

Repeals and replaces Mozambique’s October 2000 Energy Strategy and outlines the rational for its replacement, siting numerous changes that have occurred since 2000, including the rise of global warming, fossil fuel scarcity, and the challenge of energy security and stability. Adopts the strategic objective that Mozambique should align with internationally recognized best practices regarding energy-efficiency,…read more

National Environmental Policy ( 1995 )

The National Environmental Policy was adopted by the Council of Ministers as a part of the implementation of the Five-Year Government Plan (1995–1999). The Policy provides guidance for the establishment of national environment plans and legislations, aiming at conciliating development with environment protection. Under this broad scope, the 1995 National Policy proposes a set of…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Not Applicable

Economy Wide | Not Applicable | Target year: N/A | Base year: N/A

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

30% reduction in the use of oil for domestic lighting by 2025 against a 2011 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Strategy f... (2011 / Executive)

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Duplication of domestic hidroelectricity capacity by 2025 against a 2011 baseline

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Strategy f... (2011 / Executive)

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Up to 40% reduction in the use of biomass in semi-industrial facilities by 2025 against a 2011 baseline

Biofuels | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Strategy f... (2011 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Climate change poses challenges to many sectors, but until very recently, government has lacked a clear strategy for addressing these issues. Mozambique’s only national communication to the UNFCCC was submitted in 2003. However, in recent years, climate change has acquired more prominence in the political agenda, resulting in more legislation and policies. The most significant advancement was the adoption of the 2013-2025 National Climate Change Strategy in 2012. Representing a milestone in climate policy, the strategy widened the government’s approach to climate change in proposing actions that combine measures of adaptation and mitigation with the development of a low-carbon economy. The strategy provides a policy framework for climate priorities identified at sector, provincial and district levels.

The 2011–2014 National Poverty Plan identifies climate issues as one of the obstacles for the country’s economic develop­ment and includes measures to reduce disaster risks and to adapt to climate change. These are to: promote a strategy to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, to control wildfires and to promote reforestation; promote conservation agriculture and diversification of income sources in areas prone to natural disasters; establish, train and equip local risk management committees in areas prone to natural disaster or vulnerable to climate change; make the natural resource management committees operational; promote a programme for reforestation and reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and establishing carbon stocks (REDD+).

The need to adopt measures to tackle climate change was later endorsed by The Five-Year Government Plan (PQG), launched in 2010. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change are considered strategic objectives of the Plan, guiding governmental policies from 2010–2014. Climate change is approached in association with economic development and poverty reduction issues. Details on how to achieve this strategic objective are not presented, but the Five-Year Plan points out a list of general measures to improve environmental protection and address climate change, such as the promotion of environmental management addressing forest fires, soil erosion and recovery of arid areas, all applying climate change adaptation technologies.

Climate change mitigation and adaptation measures generally fall under the authority of the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA); although, climate related disaster risk management, prevention and mitigation is considered an inter-ministerial issue.

Energy Supply

Excluding the electricity market, in 2011, the primary energy mix was made up of 78% biomass, 13% hydropower, and 7% oil.

Mozambique is home to one of the largest hydropower dams in Africa: the Cahora Bassa Dam has an installed capacity of 2075MW and provides electricity not only to Mozambique but also South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Southern African Power Pool. The country has one of the highest hydroelectric power potentials in Africa, estimated at about 12,000MW.

Consequently, 99.9% of installed electricity generating capacity is hydropower generation while the remaining 0.1% of installed capacity is from fossil fuels. Wind power is in the early stage of development and Mozambique is currently mapping the wind potential via wind speed stations across the country with the aim of producing a wind energy resource atlas. The country’s solar energy potential is largely untapped and is larger than current energy consumption, with an estimated 1.49GWh of potential.

The US Energy Information Agency classifies Mozambique as one of the most promising countries in Africa for untapped natural gas and coal resources, following significant natural gas discoveries since 2010. In 2012, Mozambique became the second-largest coal producer in Africa, surpassing Zimbabwe. Construction on the country’s first coal-fired power plant is scheduled to begin in 2015.

In 2009, the Council of Ministers approved the National Biofuels Policy and Strategy. The instrument aims to contribute to energy security and sustainable socio-economic development and energy security, by developing a biofuel sector. The document provides a general framework and guidelines for increasing activities in the sector; the policy and strategy adopts several measures for the promotion of biofuel production, adopting sustainability criteria, as well as limits for land allocation to the be exploited by the sector. Proposing the adoption of the Biofuels Development National Programme, the Resolution establishes an institutional framework and a chronogram for the gradual increase of biofuel production and distribution.

The 2011- 2025 Renewable Energy Development Strategy was adopted by the Ministry of Energy to establish core guidelines and success indicators for the development of the sector. Actions target energy security and efficiency, increasing financing for new energy sources, including solar PV, wind, hydropower, and biomass. The Strategy calls for the adoption of fiscal benefits and credit for the production of renewables, emphasising that projects in these areas are potentially eligible for benefits from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

Energy Demand

Mozambique is a net exporter of electricity, yet only around 18% of the domestic population has access to electricity. The majority of the population depends on biomass and waste for energy for both household cooking and heating. Additionally, the national grid experiences transmission and distribution losses of about 25%.

Apart from informal guidance regarding energy conservation on the website of the state-owned utility, Electricidade de Mozambique, the government has not implemented any statewide energy efficiency programmes.

REDD+ and LULUCF

In 2013, Mozambique established a Technical Unit for REDD+ (TU-REDD+) responsible for REDD+ activities in the country.  The TU-REDD+ is co-ordinated by and subordinate to the Ministry for the Co-ordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) in collaboration with the Directorate of Land and Forest Management within the Ministry of Agriculture. TU-REDD+ is advised by a REDD Technical Review Committee (TRC) composed of stakeholders from government, NGOs, religious institutions, business, civil society and community associations.

The 1999 Forest and Wildlife Act regulates forest and wildlife management and conservation, legislating over illegal activities, such as illegal fires in forest areas.

Similarly, the 1997 National Strategy for Forest and Wildlife Development aims to protect, preserve and develop in a sustainable manner all forest and animal resources for the socio-economic and environmental benefit of the people. To this end, the Strategy calls for the development of local and national investment plans to activities related to forest and wildlife and the adoption of more regulations in the sector.

The 1995 National Environmental Policy aims to promo­te sustainable development, translated into the integrating environmental issues in socio-economic planning. The Policy proposes the adoption of sectoral policies in a wide range of areas. In associ­ating deforestation with expansion of activities within the energy sector, the document draws attention to the importance of adopting an energy policy that promotes the use of renewable energy and discourages the use of fossil fuels and biomass. In addition, it suggests the adoption of a forest management plan for areas close to urban spaces to increase supply of wood-based fuels.

Adaptation

Mozambique’s First National Communication identifies seven sectors particularly vulnerable to climate change: agriculture; forests and pastures; livestock; water resources; coastal areas and resources; infrastructure; and health and fishing. The National Communication further outlines two adaptation pathways: (i) integrating environmental concerns with socio-economic development and (ii) sustainably managing natural resources across sectors.

As a Least Developed Country (LDC) in the UNFCCC, Mozam­bique elaborated a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2007, identifying the most vulnerable areas to climate change, and proposing immediate actions to promote adaptation to these urgent issues. The NAPA proposes four adaptation initiatives which include: (i) strengthening an early warning sys­tem; (ii) developing capacities of agricultural producers to cope with climate change impacts by reducing soil degradation due to inappropriate agricultural practices; (iii) reducing climate change impacts in coastal zones via dune erosion control and mangrove restoration; and (iv) improved manage­ment of water resources through updated water infrastructure and establishment of water sharing agreements.

In 2010 the government also adopted the Strategy and Action Plan on Gender, Environment and Climate Change. The plan aims to improve women’s and poor communities’ participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions, but also foster their engagement in environment management.

To date, Mozambique does not have any litigation listed.

The Republic of Mozambique, which gained independence from Portugal in 1975, has a mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law and customary law. The first constitution was adopted in 1975 and the most recent constitution in 2004.

The President is the Head of State while the Prime Minister is the Head of Government. The legislature, a unicameral Assembly, holds the authority to pass laws. The Assembly is made up of 250 Members of Parliament (MPs), who are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. The most recent Parliamentary elections were held in October 2014 and the next ones are due in 2019.

Individual MPs, political groups within Parliament and other governmental institutions have the right to introduce legislation in the Assembly. Formal consideration of a legislative proposal requires it to be submitted to the president of the Assembly, after which the text will be presented to the relevant Parliamentary committees. After the committee discussion, the proposal is circulated amongst all MPs, followed by a debate between the representatives of the political parties. The working committees then summarise the main aspects of these discussions before sending the bill to the plenary.

Legislative proposals are subjected to two readings in different plenary sessions and require the approval of at least half of the MPs present in these sessions. If it wins a majority support, the legislation is then signed by the president of the Assembly before being sent to the President. The President has 30 days to consider the Bill, with the possibility of referring it to the Constitutional Council to verify its con­stitutional validity. With the presidential assent, the Bill comes into force as law once published in the Official Gazette.

Last modified 8 June, 2018