Framework Law 99-12 on the National Charter for the Environment and Sustainable Development ( 2014 )

The Framework Law lays the ground for a national policy for the protection of the environment and the sustainable development. It was prepared in consultation with all ministry departments, economic and social operators, civil society and academics. It gives legal basis to the National Charter for Environment and Sustainable Development, establishing the principles, rights, duties…read more

Law 47-09 on energy efficiency ( 2011 )

This law sets the criteria of “minimum energy performance\ for appliances and electrical equipment powered by natural gas, liquid or gaseous petroleum products, coal and renewable energies. It makes mandatory energy audits for companies and institutions in the production, transmission and distribution of energy, as well as the performance of an energy impact study for…read more

Law 13-09 on renewable energy, regulated by Decree 2-10-578 ( 2010 )

This law provides a legal framework for the development of renewable energy projects in Morocco. These are defined as all sources of energy that are naturally renewable, particularly solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, wave and tidal energy, as well as energy generated through biomass, waste and biogas (but excluding hydraulic energy with installed power above 30MW).…read more

Law 16-09, creating the Moroccan Agency for Development of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ADEREE) ( 2010 )

Establishes The Moroccan Agency for Development of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ADEREE), as a public agency. The ADEREE aims to contribute to the implementation of the national policy on renewable energy and energy efficiency. It proposes national, regional and sectoral plans for the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency. The ADEREE is also…read more

Law 57-09, creating the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) ( 2010 )

Established the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) as a Public Private Partnership. MASEN was established to ensure the implementation of the Moroccan solar programme. The MASEN aims to achieve the development of integrated production of electricity from solar energy, with a minimum total capacity of 2,000 MW. MASEN ensures the management of the projects…read more

Decree no 2.17.655 creating the Strategic Committee for Sustainable Development ( 2018 )

The present decree creates the Strategic Committee for Sustainable Development, which will also oversee climate change matters. The decree comes as an application of framework law no 99.12, art. 15, on the establishment of an evaluation and monitoring system to achieve its objectives and to control and rectify, if necessary, the actions taken on this…read more

National Strategy of Sustainable Development 2020 and 2030 ( 2014 )

The National Strategy of Sustainable Development 2020, and the newer National Strategy of Sustainable Development 2030, are transversal policy documents framing the future of governmental action, notably in order to achieve the transition to a low-carbon economy.…read more

National Plan Against Climate Change ( 2009 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The National Plan presents the mitigation and adaptation actions taken to combat climate change. It consolidates within the Department for the Environment a number of initiatives related to climate change established by other ministries. It presents a summary of current emissions and projections of climate impacts, and it integrates the plans of individual ministries. The…read more

Energy Security Plan and National Energy Strategy Vision 2030 ( 2008 )

The 2008 Energy Security Plan aims to reduce the country's dependence on foreign energy sources by increasing efficiency in general and using RES. The 2008 Mitigation Strategy sets an ambitious target of producing 12 % of primary energy and 42 % of electricity from RES by 2020.…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

17% (unconditional) to 42% (conditional) reduction in GHG emission by 2030 compared to the BAU scenario, taking into account reductions in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

Implementation of a pilot project for energy recovery from air compressors in 250 industrial companies

Demand-Side Efficiency: Industries

At least 2MW solar energy production

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: N/A | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): Law 57-09,... (2010 / Legislative)

Implementation of a program to promote photovoltaic panels connected to the low-voltage grid with a target of 1,000 MWc by 2030

Renewable Energy: Solar | Target year: 2030

1,554 MW produced from wind energy by 2012, then 2,280 MW by 2020, then 5,520 MW by 2030

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2012, 2020, 2030 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Put 14,700,000 low-energy light bulbs in the residential sector

Demand-Side Efficiency: Appliances

Avoid 20,825 kT CO2 emissions through renewable energy by 2030 against a 2009 baseline

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Development of the solar thermal field to reach 1,700,000 m2 by 2030

Renewable Energy: Solar | Target year: 2030

400MW biomass capacity by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Use of LPG for electricity generation in combined cycle power plants to reach 4,750 MW by 2030

Gas-to-Power | Target year: 2030

740MW concentrated solar, 400MW solar PV, 3,000,000 m2 thermal solar by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Implementation of multiple micro-hydro power plants, reaching a capacity of 100 MW by 2030

Renewable Energy: Hydro | Target year: 2030

42% renewable energy cpapcity by 2020

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

Extention of National Solar Plan to 2,000MW by 2030 from thermodynamic concentrated solar power and photovoltaic power plants

Renewable Energy: Solar | Target year: 2030

Reduce 200MW energy loss through increased battery capacity installations by 2012 against a 2008 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 2008 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Extention of National Wind Plan to 2,000MW by 2030

Renewable Energy: Wind | Target year: 2030

12-15% energy savings, then 20% by 2020, 2030

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

Distribution of 1,600 cook stoves per year between 2010 and 2015, of 6,000 cook stove per year between 2016 and 2020, and of 8,000 cook stove per year between 2020 and 2030

Clean Cooking And Heating: Efficient Cookstoves | Target year: 2030

Avoid 2,874 kT CO2 emissions through energy efficiency by 2030 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

300,000 m2 of solar water heaters

Demand-side Efficiency: Tourism

300,000 low-energy light bulbs

Demand-side Efficiency: Tourism

Import liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and use of LPG for electricity generation in combined cycle power plants to reach 3,550 MW by 2025

Gas-to-Power | Target year: 2025

Put in place solar plants connected to the medium-voltage grid to reach 1,000 MW by 2030

Renewable Energy: Solar | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

Afforest 600,000 hectares by 2030

Afforestation | Target year: 2030

Energy from 207140m3 REDD+ forests

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Base year: annual | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

Protecte 1,500,000 hectares against erosion by 2030, which will include the prioritization of 22 basins

Land Degradation | Target year: 2030

Up to 6,120 MTCO2e emissions reduction by enforcing overgrazing strategy by 2030 against a 2013 baseline

Land Use Change | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2013 | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

The replenishment of 200,000 hectares of forests by 2020

Reforestation | Target year: 2020

1.5 million ha reforested by 2030

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2030 | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

Planting of 15,000 hectares of fruit trees to improve and diversify small farmers’ income

Afforestation

Planting of argan trees on 38,000 hectares to enhance vulnerable communities’ resilience to climate change, increase carbon storage in biomass and soils, and indirectly reduce the industrial and anthropogenic pressure on natural argan tree forests

Afforestation

Management of forestry climate risk for surface area of 2,304 hectares per year between 2010 and 2030

Sustainable Forest Management | Target year: 2030

Stabilization of dunes by planting vegetation between 2010 and 2030 (500 hectares per year) to combat silting and desertification

Afforestation | Target year: 2030

Afforestation and reforestation over 60,000 hectares between 2010 and 2030 to combat deforestation, the loss of water resources, animal, plant and land biodiversity

Reforestation | Target year: 2030

Afforestation and reforestation over 60,000 hectares between 2010 and 2030 to combat deforestation, the loss of water resources, animal, plant and land biodiversity

Afforestation | Target year: 2030

Develop over 300,000 hectares of rangelands between 2020 and 2030

Sustainable Land Management | Target year: 2030

Planting 4.5 million date palm trees to enhance oases’ productivity rate, combat desertification and help prevent the exodus of youth people from rural areas

Afforestation

Revegetation of bare or eroded lands with 194,762 hectares of cacti in drylands to enhance smallholder farmers and women’s cooperative income

Afforestation

Planting of 73,000 hectares of citrus to improve both farmers’ revenues and export earnings

Afforestation

Planting of 272,000 hectares of fruit trees to improve and diversify farmers’ income, especially in fragile mountain areas

Afforestation

Planting of 679,000 hectares of olive trees in areas that are unfit for yearround crops to limit soil erosion and improve small farmers’ income

Afforestation

Complete the suckering, renewal or afforestation of approximately 50,000 hectares per year, with a primary focus on natural species and support for high-quality forest research when rehabilitating territory.

Sustainable Forest Management

Source: NDC

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

15% energy savings through energy efficiency programs in building, industry, and transport by 2030 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Energy Sec... (2008 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies

Upgrade utility vehicles of 20 years and older to lower their fuel consumption between 2025 and 2030

Vehicle Fleet | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

35% cut in GHG emissions by 2020

General | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National P... (2009 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies

Increasing by 50 % the volume of sea products utilized and marketed by 2030

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Restoring 50 % of damaged marine habitats by 2030

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2030

Renewal and modernization of 30 % of the fleets, including with greener vessels equipped with observation systems by 2030

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2030

Development of two hatcheries dedicated to restock five endangered coastal species by 2030

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2030

Establishment of marine protected areas representing 10 % of the Exclusive Economic Zone by 2030

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2030

Reduction by 50 % of the quantity of fish meal created from fresh fish by 2020

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2020

Establishment of a coastal observation network, equipped with four oceanographic and meteorological buoys, and expansion of the environmental and sanitary surveillance and warning system along the coastline to 40 observation zones by 2020

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2020

Reduction of discharges by 90 % compared to current levels by 2020

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2020

Reach a 95 % rate of traded species managed sustainably by 2020

Fisheries And Aquaculture | Target year: 2020

Extension of irrigation to new agricultural areas by over 260,000 hectares by 2030

Irrigation | Target year: 2030

Hydro-agricultural infrastructure around dams over 160,000 hectares by 2020

Irrigation | Target year: 2020

Develope the public-private partnerships to delegate irrigation for the coastal Azemmour-Bir Jdid area, over 3,200 hectares by 2020

Irrigation | Target year: 2020

Irrigate 15,000 hectares by desalinating water from the Chtouka Ait Baha plain by 2020

Irrigation | Target year: 2020

Switching from current irrigation systems to localized irrigation systems over an area of 550,000 hectares by 2020

Irrigation | Target year: 2020

Source: NDC

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies

Coverage of risk against climatic variations through multi-risk insurance for cereals and legumes covering 1 million hectares by 2020

Disaster Preparedness | Target year: 2020

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies

Expand wastewater management to services and reuse 50 % of wastewater in in-land cities by 2020.

Wastewater | Target year: 2020

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Reach a 50 % volume of treated wastewater by 2016, of 60 % by 2020 and of 100 % by 2030.

Wastewater | Target year: 2030

Reach an overall urban sewerage connection rate of 75 % by 2016, 80 % by 2020 and 100 % by 2030.

Wastewater | Target year: 2030

Develop chains of “sorting-recycling-recovering” with sorting pilot projects to achieve a 20 % rate for recycled materials by 2020.

Recycling, Reuse, Reduce | Target year: 2020

Rehabilitate or close all illegal landfills by 2020

Solid Waste | Target year: 2020

Source: NDC

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies

Improve the efficiency of the drinking water network with a national average target of 80 % by 2030

Water Efficiency | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transfer 800 million m3 of water per year from north to south by 2030

Water Management | Target year: 2030

Recycle wastewater to reach a capacity of 325 billion m3 per year by 2030

Wastewater Treatment | Target year: 2030

Desalinization of seawater to reach a capacity of 500 million m3 per year by 2030

Water Conservation And Reuse | Target year: 2030

Restructuring the full-service distribution sector at the regional level to reach a rate of 60% for individual connection by 2020.

Water Supply | Target year: 2020

Wastewater treatment at a rate of 50 % by 2016 and 60 % by 2020.

Wastewater Treatment | Target year: 2020

Connection to the water treatment network in urban areas at a rate of 75 % by 2016, 80 % by 2020 and 100% by 2030

Wastewater Treatment | Target year: 2030

Artificial replenishment of groundwater tables by up to 180 million m3/year.

Water Conservation And Reuse

Substitution of water samples from overexploited groundwater tables (85 million m3 annually) with aboveground water sources.

Water Conservation And Reuse

Source: NDC

In 2001 Morocco hosted COP 7 and in the same year, a National Committee for Climate Change was set up. The National Committee is chaired by the Department for the Environment, the national focal point for the UNFCCC, and includes nominated contacts from other ministries. The National Committee’s main role has been to draft national communications to the UNFCCC. Morocco’s first and second national communications were submitted in 2001 and 2010 respectively. The government is preparing its third national communication, which will be presented at the UNFCCC conference in Paris in 2015.

Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and with the support of a UNEP/UNDP programme, Morocco established the institutional set-up for the CDM (2003–2005). The country is among the most in North Africa in CDMs. A portfolio of 40 projects and programmes has been developed, of which eight projects are registered at the CDM Executive Board with a potential reduction of GHG emissions estimated at 5.4m tons of CO2 equivalent per year.

A National Plan of Action against Climate Change (PNRC) was presented in 2009, at COP15, in Copenhagen. The PNRC focuses on developing renewable sources of electricity generation, particularly solar, and on investing in energy efficiency. The plan comprises a portfolio of governmental actions to mitigate and adapt to climate change, but with more of a focus on the latter. A range of sectoral strategies, including the “Plan Maroc Vert” for agriculture, complement the Climate Change Plan. The Plan is currently going through a process of updating.

On a broader scope, the adoption of the National Charter for Environment and Sustainable Development allowed Morocco to redouble its efforts to protect the environment and sustainable development. The Charter was formally adopted in 2012 and a Framework Law was enacted in 2014 to help its operationalisation. Framework Law 99-12 explicitly mentions the fight against climate change and calls for strengthening capacities to promote adaptation to climate change.

However, there is currently no formal climate change mitigation structure in place at either national or regional level. To address this issue, the German development agency GIZ is currently helping to set up a climate competence centre. The project, to be implemented between 2013 and 2016, aims to define the roles and tasks of the climate competence centre at regional and national level through consultation with the relevant partners. This work includes: establishing a climate database; developing vulnerability indicators; identifying, processing and disseminating data and tools that can be used in training in the climate field (climate proofing, NAMAs); designing an information system to facilitate the development of GHG inventories; creating and regularly updating a website for the centre. A Climate Change Policy (PCCM), which is currently being developed, is intended as a flexible and dynamic instrument combined with a monitoring and evaluation tool that will allow for necessary refinements over time.

Carbon pricing

In 2012 Morocco obtained USD350,000 under the World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) to launch its pilot carbon market. The project includes a plan to establish a domestic Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and programmes aimed at issuing carbon credits based on NAMAs. The government identified three main areas of action: electricity generation, cement production and phosphate extraction. The government started the PMR preparation phase in 2013, and intends to establish a pilot carbon market instrument based on NAMAs by 2016. A domestic carbon market would start operating in 2018, and by 2020 the market would be linked with international carbon markets.

Morocco joined the Low-Emission Capacity Building Project to develop a Low-Emission Strategy as well as a NAMA project portfolio along with MRV systems and an associated knowledge base.

Energy supply

Morocco is the only North African country with no natural oil resources, and is the largest energy importer in the region, with 96% of its energy needs being sourced externally. Power generation is primarily fuelled by fossil energy sources, mainly oil (70%) but also coal and natural gas, all imported.

Morocco has ambitious plans for the renewable energy sector. The National Energy Strategy and the related National Priority Action Plan (PNAP), both launched in 2008, set a target to meet 10–12% of the country’s primary energy demand by 2020 and 15–20% by 2030 from renewable energy. These targets were incorporated into the National Plan of Action against Climate Change. Morocco also expects solar, wind and hydro power to account for 42% (equivalent to about 6,000MW) of its total energy mix by 2020.

In order to achieve these targets, it is promoting policy and regulatory reform. In 2010, the Moroccan Agency for Development of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ADEREE), and the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) were established. These agencies work in partnership with other institutions, such as the Research Institute on Renewable Energy (IRESEN), created in 2009, which aims to link the private sector and research institutions, and the Energy Development and Energy Investment Company (SIE), founded in 2010, which aims to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency.

REDD+ and LULUCF

The National Climate Change Plan establishes that the Ministry for Agriculture and Marine Fisheries and the High Commission for Water and Forests should promote the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture and deforestation. The measures include improving the efficiency of agricultural land, promoting the recovery of methane from manure, and promoting sustainable farming through a certification scheme. There are also plans to implement a reforestation plan, establish green taxes for reforestation, and implement a fire-fighting plan. Further strategies for agriculture are expected to follow in the Energy Strategy.

Transportation

The National Climate Change Plan establishes mitigation measures in the transportation sector. These include measures to change the transportation mix and fuels used. Since 2009 the Ministry of Energy and Mines requires the use of Gasoil 50ppm and unleaded petrol.

Adaptation

The National Plan against Climate Change identifies a number of adaptation priorities in agriculture, coastal areas and water scarcity. These measures rely on elements of the 2007 Morocco Green Plan for agriculture, and of the 2009 National Water Strategy.

For agriculture, measures include developing the adaptive capacity of rural populations; developing a national forecast system for agricultural production; creating resistant varieties of wheat; improving the productivity and durability of farming systems through planting techniques; changing agricultural practices; optimising irrigation; improving tenure of agricultural land; incentives and subsidies for training farmers in sustainable farming; and establishing water pricing based on consumption.

For coastal areas, legislation will enable the implementation of integrated management of coastal zones and their adaptation to rising sea level by building dykes or other protective structures.

Measures to tackle water scarcity include education and public awareness about water conservation; installation of individual meters; revising tariff systems; investing in water saving and water recycling measures; and investing in new dams and drilling of deep wells.

In addition, between 2009 and 2012 the government took part in the Adaptation to Climatic Change in Morocco for Resilient Oasis (PACC/Oasis) project. PACC/Oasis, part of the “Programme Africaine d’Adaptation au Changement Climatique”, includes 20 different African countries, and involves the UNDP, the government of Japan, the National Commission on Water, Forests and Fight Against Desertification, as well as a range of other ministries, provinces and agencies. The project aimed to manage and reduce the risks of climate change to the economy by introducing adaptation approaches and by strengthening local capacities. As a result of this project, reports were produced covering: climatic scenarios for the oasis zones for 2021-2050, a vulnerability assessment, evaluation of possible risks (flooding, drought, fire and locusts), establishment of automatic climate stations, establishment of pilot sites, and a communication strategy.

To date, Morocco does not have any litigation listed.

Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. Political reforms in the 1990s expanded parliamentary power, and in 1996 a bicameral legislature was established. Responding to the Arab Spring movements and pro-reform demonstrations, King Mohammed VI proposed constitutional amendments in 2011. The electorate voted the amendments into law and a new constitutional text was enacted.

The 2011 constitution expanded the legislative power of the parliament. It maintained the bicameral parliament composed of a Chamber of Representatives with 395 members, elected by universal direct suffrage for five years, and a Chamber of Councillors, elected indirectly by local and national electoral colleges, with a minimum of 90 and a maximum of 120 members, who are elected for six years. The parliament enacts national laws, oversees the government, and assesses public policies.

The king exercises his powers through Royal Decrees, which are part of the king’s discretionary powers in a variety of fields related to administration, legislation and other regulatory mechanisms. They are enforced as laws and constitute one of the most important sources of legislation in Morocco. There are two types of Royal Decree: those that allow the king to exercise his religious prerogatives and those related to his status as head of state. The constitution also distinguishes between decrees that are countersigned by the head of government and those that are signed only by the king.

The new constitution grants citizens the right to submit motions on legislation, but the conditions and under which that right can be exercised are established by an organic law. International treaties ratified by the Moroccan state supersede national laws.

The first parliamentary elections held following the adoption of the new Constitution took place in July 2011. The latest election for the Chamber of Representatives was held in October 2016, the next is expected in 2021.

Last modified 23 August, 2017