Law on Air Quality ( 2012 )

The purpose of this law is to regulate actions related to the protection of ambient air, prevention of air pollution, and reduction and monitoring of emissions of air pollutants. If an international treaty to which Mongolia is a party is inconsistent with this law then the provisions of the international treaty shall prevail. It lists…read more

Law on Soil Protection and Prevention of Desertification ( 2012 )

The soil protection law includes measures to prevent desertification from the intensification of agriculture, mining, road construction, and urban land use as well as climate change. The law provides guidance to facilitate a safe and healthy environment for the population, and to prevent soil damage and lower soil fertility from overgrazing and desertification, and systems…read more

The Forest Law ( 2012 )

The purpose of this Law is to regulate relations for the protection, restoration, forestation, tenure, use of forests and prevention from forest and steppe fires. The Law regulates the ownership of planted forests and tenure forests. It also classifies a Forest Fund based on two conservation and utilisation regimes: conservation forest zones and production forest…read more

Renewable Energy Law ( 2007 )

The Law allows private sector independent power producers to build and operate facilities using renewable energy sources and to deliver the electricity produced to distribution networks and offers incentives to encourage private sector investments in renewable energy, the main one being the establishment of thresholds for feed-in-tariffs. Under the Law, the Energy Regulatory Authority will…read more

Law on Disaster Prevention, 2003 ( 2003 )

This law regulates matters relating to the principles and full powers of disaster protection organizations and agencies, their organization and activities, as well as the rights and duties of the State, local authorities, enterprises, entities and individuals in relation to disaster protection. The law defines “disaster protection” as the set of measures to prevent, protect…read more

The Energy Law ( 2001 )

The Energy Law regulates matters relating to energy generation, transmission, distribution, dispatching and supply activities, construction of energy facilities and energy consumption. The law is based on economic principles, market mechanisms and the rights and obligations of both the industry and the consumers. The law changes the operations and regulations of the energy sector. On…read more

Action Programme for the Government of Mongolia 2016-2020 ( 2016 )

The Action Programme 2016-2020 reflects Mongolia’s Sustainable Development Vision 2030. It aims at fast-tracking the country's economy revitalisation, promote growth, support social sectors and improve wellbeing. Point four is focused on green growth and human health. Paragraph 4.1.2 establishes the goal of developing the renewable energy sector and solicit support within international cooperation framework to business and production…read more

Sustainable Development Vision 2030 ( 2016 )

Aims at integrating Sustainable Development Goals framework into Mongolian national policymaking. The first objective for the agricultural sector is to preserve the gene pool and resilience of pastoral livestock breeding that is adept to climate change, reduce grazing and land deterioration. One of the document's chapters deals with climate change in itself. The first objective…read more

Green Development Policy (GDP) ( 2014 )

This Policy defines Green Development as “a transition to a development model that results in sustaining well-being of people by ensuring environmentally friendly, inclusive economic growth or increasing efficient consumption of natural resources and sustainability of ecosystem services”. Key indicators for measuring progress will include the savings of natural resources derived from production and services,…read more

National Action Programme on Climate Change (NAPCC) ( 2011 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The National Action Programme on Climate Change (NAPCC) is implemented within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals and the Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia. The NAPCC aims to create a sustainable environment for development by promoting capacities and measures on adaptation to climate change, halting imbalances in the country’s ecosystems and protecting them.…read more

National Renewable Energy Programme (2005-2020) ( 2005 )

The National Renewable Energy Programme was approved by the Parliament to increase the adoption of renewable energy in the energy system, improve the structure of power supplies, and promote renewable energy in off-grid settlements to ensure ecological balance and improve economic efficiency. The Programme is being implemented in two stages: the first stage from 2005-2010…read more

National Action Program to Promote Quality and Environmental Management Systems ( 2002 )

The National Programme to promote quality and environmental management systems calls for legislative and structural changes to support cleaner production and an eco-labelling scheme. The Programme is implemented in 3 stages: the first stage from 2002-2006, the second from 2007-2011, and the third between 2012 and 2016.…read more


NDC Laws and National Policies

Not Applicable

Economy Wide | Not Applicable | Target year: N/A | Base year: N/A

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies

To reduce bare fallow to 30% ; To introduce crop rotation system with 3-4 routes and 3-5 crops; To expand irrigated cropland by 2- 2.5 times

Land And Soil Management

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Reduce rate of pasture degradation; Regulate headcounts and types of animals including wild animals to match with pasture carrying capacities


Source: NDC


NDC Laws and National Policies

-20% by 2020 and -40% by 2030 in heat losses in buildings

Buildings | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies

To strengthen early warning system for natural disasters

Early Warning System

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies

-11.2% emissions through internal energy use in combined heat and power plants by 2020 and 9.14% by 2030

Supply-Side Efficiency: Power Generation Efficiency Improvement: Cogeneration Plants | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

-10.8% in electricity transmission losses by 2020 and 7.8% reduction by 2030

Supply-Side Efficiency: Grid/Energy Loss Reduction | Target year: 2030

20% renewables by 2020 and 30% renewables by 2030 as a share of total electricity generation capacity

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2030

Insulation of 18,184 households in Ulanbataar

Demand-Side Efficiency: Buildings

Installation of 354 MW wind energy

Renewable Energy: Wind

Installation of 145 MW solar energy

Renewable Energy: Solar

Installation of 675 MW hydro power

Renewable Energy: Hydro

Source: NDC


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies

To make forests resilient to climate change by improving their productivity and changing their composition and structure

Sustainable Forest Management

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Forest area will be increased to 9% by 2030 through reforestation activities; |To reduce forest degradation rate caused by human activities, fires, insects and diseases.

Reforestation | Target year: 2030

-2% by 2020 and -5% by 2030

LULUCF/Forestry: General | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies

Increase the share of private hybrid road vehicles to 13% by 2030 from 6.5% in 2014

Vehicle Fleet | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Upgrading/paving 11,000km roads by 2021

Road Sector | Target year: 2021

30-40% traffic decrease in Ulaanbatar by 2023

Transport: General | Target year: 2023

Source: NDC


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.


NDC Laws and National Policies

To find solutions (and subsequently implement) for sustainable water supply in Ulaanbaatar and for industries and mining in the Gobi region

Water Supply

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

30 % of the territory will be state protected by 2030 and sustainable financial mechanism will be introduced |To create water reservoirs at rivers and at outlets of lakes, and to construct multipurpose systems of water use

Water Conservation And Reuse | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

In recent years Mongolia has joined 14 environment-related UN conventions and treaties, including the UNFCCC. Since 1992, the Parliament has passed several laws and regulations on environmental protection, such as the Law on Environmental Protection (1995, amended in 2007), the Water Law (2004), the Forest Law (2012, last amended in 2013), the Law on Air (1995, amended in 2012), the Energy Law (2001) and the Disaster Prevention Law (2003). The government has also introduced a number of action plans, including the Mongolian Environmental Action Plan, The Mongolian Action Programme for the 21st Century (MAP 21), the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification, the National Biodiversity Action Plan, the Action Programme to Protect Air Quality, and the National Action Programme to Protect the Ozone Layer. MAP 21 includes concrete considerations and recommendations related to adaptation to climate change and mitigation of GHGs emissions. The Law on Air Quality and the Law on Environmental Protection are also central legal instruments for climate change related issues.

The National Action Programme on Climate Change (NAPCC) is the most relevant policy document addressing climate change. It was approved by Parliament in 2011 and intends to meet UNFCCC obligations and commitments, establishing national policy and strategy to tackle the adverse impacts of climate change and to mitigate GHG emissions. The NAPCC is to be implemented in two phases. The first phase (2011-2016) aims to strengthen national mitigation and adaptation capacity, setting up the legal environment, structure, institutional and management system, and improving community and public awareness and participation in climate change activities. The second phase (2017-2021) aims to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

Mongolia has also developed the Climate Change Co-ordination Office (CCCO) to carry out the activities necessary to implement the commitments and duties under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, to manage nationwide activities, and to integrate climate change-related issues in various sectors. The inter-disciplinary and inter-sectoral National Climate Committee (NCC), now led by the Ministry of Environment and Green Development, co-ordinates and guides national activities and measures to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. High level officials such as Deputy Ministers, State Secretaries and Director-Generals of the main Departments of all related ministries, agencies and other key officials are members of the NCC.

Other entities involved in climate change and energy policy include the CDM Bureau, the National Renewable Energy Centre, and the Clean Air Foundation. The National Agency for Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment Monitoring (NAMHEM) monitors the environment and climate, carrying out a range of climate change studies and research. In addition, the government is working to raise public awareness on climate change and its impacts.

In June 2014, the Parliament approved the Green Development Policy (GDP). The GDP was drafted by a working group within the Ministry of Environment and Green Development in response to the Rio +20 conference in 2012. Two high-level documents were prepared to formally establish the GDP: the Green Development Concept, and the Mid-term Programme on Green Development. The concept paper determines the goals and purposes for green development until 2030, whereas the Mid-term Programme designs policy and strategies to ensure these goals and purposes are implemented.

The GDP benefited from the “Strategies for Development of Green Energy Systems in Mongolia”. The project involved the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), and a governmental Advisory Committee comprised of officials from the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Environment and Green Development, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Renewable Energy Centre, and the Mongolian Energy Association. Using information about energy needs, resources, and infrastructure, the project developed a quantitative computer model of current energy use and GHG emissions. The team then used the model to develop four scenarios for potential energy futures and GHG emissions through 2035.

Mongolia will become the first country to benefit from the new Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE). PAGE is a response to the outcome document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which recognises the green economy as a vehicle for sustainable development and poverty eradication. This partnership brings together the UNDP, GGGI and other global agencies to support Mongolia in refining and implementing its Green Development Strategy. An initial economic analysis of the country and a green jobs mapping study have been completed.

Energy supply

Despite the intensive use of coal, Mongolia has considerable renewable energy resources. The strategies for sustainable development and GHG reduction in the energy sector are focused on renewable and other clean energy use, clean coal, improving the efficiency of energy supply, and energy efficiency improvement in buildings and industry. Small-scale hydro-power plants produce less than 1% of the total energy generation but according to the “Master Plan Study for Rural Power Supply by Renewable Energy in Mongolia”, by the end of 2020 up to 20% of the country’s electricity will be supplied from renewable energy sources.

Mongolia’s Second National Communication lists a number of strategies to reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector, including a National Renewable Energy Programme, the Renewable Energy Law, the 100,000 solar ‘ger’ (round shaped traditional Mongolian dwelling consisting of a wooden frame beneath several layers of wool felt) programme, energy supply by solar, wind and diesel hybrid systems, and the implementation of the National Programme of LPG use. Other strategies involve improving the efficiency of energy supply, promoting clean coal technology, and a study of nuclear power development.

The National Renewable Energy Programme (2005-2020) established a long-term goal of 20-25% total installed capacity generated from renewable sources by 2020. Phase one of the project (2005 to 2010) saw the construction of 12MW and 11MW hydropower plants in Durgun and Taishir. Additionally, 12 renewable energy systems with a capacity of 60-150kW were constructed. The target of 3-5% of renewables sourced capacity was achieved for phase one. The programme is currently in its second phase (2010 to 2020). The latest development is a 50MW wind power project, the first large-scale wind scheme in the country, that will reduce emissions by about 180,000 tons of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) per year and cut coal consumption by 122,000 tons annually.

The Renewable Energy Law (2007), further regulates the renewable energy power generation. It provides a feed-in tariff for the grid and the independent power generation from renewable energy. Any price difference of electricity generated by a renewable energy power source that is connected to a transmission network shall be absorbed into the selling price from other power plants on the grid. The Ministry of Energy is planning to change the structure of the sector and amend the Law to provide better conditions for private companies to import technology and invest in the sector.

Energy demand

Emissions intensity per unit of GDP is among the world’s highest. Coal comprises about 98% of total solid fuel consumption. About 23% of the coal is used in electrical power stations and increased energy consumption is resulting in increased GHG emissions. The priority for the energy sector is to reduce fuel consumption. About 40% of heat generated by burning fuel is lost.

Resolution No. 72 (2000), established that by 2014 the energy sector should operate without incurring losses. The Building Law, Housing Law, and Urban Planning Law provide a legal basis for updating building code energy efficiency provisions systems. A Draft Energy Conservation Law is under discussion, and it is expected that it will be approved by the Parliament within the next months.

Between 2009 and 2013 the UNDP supported the Building Energy Efficiency Project (BEEP) to help cut GHG emissions by transforming the buildings market towards more energy-efficient building technologies and services, sustainable private house insulation and energy efficiency financing mechanisms. Another project, supported by GIZ, the German development agency, is helping the Energy Authority and the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy to improve energy efficiency in power stations and on the demand side.


Since 1990 the legal framework of forestry sector has changed several times. There are three primary forest laws: the Forest Law (2012, amended in 2013), the Law on Forest and Grassland Fire Protection (1996), and the Law on Fees for Harvest of Timber and Fuel Wood (1995). These laws are the basic framework for protection, use and generation of forests and forests resources. Animal husbandry is the main source of livelihoods and a major sector of the economy.

Mongolia became a partner country of the UN-REDD Programme in 2011. Since then, FAO and UNDP have assisted the government in developing the National REDD+ Readiness Roadmap. The Roadmap was prepared by a taskforce of 20 members and includes a broad range of representatives from different government sectors, the private sector and civil society. In July 2014 Mongolia’s REDD+ Readiness Roadmap was completed and endorsed by the stakeholders. As a result, Mongolia has the first boreal forest National Programme to be funded by the UN-REDD Programme. 


The government has encouraged the use of fuel-efficient cars as well as hybrid fuel cars in order to reduce the negative impact of cars on environment and human health. The Excise Duty Tax Law (2006) cut import taxes on hybrid vehicles and increased taxes on used cars. From 2011, public transportation vehicles more than 12 years old and taxis more than 10 years old were banned. Parliament also approved the Law on Hazardous and Toxic Chemicals (2006), the Law on Technology Transfer (1998) and the Law on Science and Technology (2006) to improve legal conditions for the transfer of modern technology for development sectors including transportation.


Climate change will exacerbate existing natural resource concerns, such as a diminution of water resources and desertification. Desertification has become a national disaster, affecting more than 70% of grassland. According to a recent study by the Asian Development Bank on the economics of climate change in East Asia, under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, Mongolia will be the country most severely affected. A comprehensive assessment of the climatic situation, including future climate scenario and vulnerabilities, is found in the First and Second Assessment Report on Climate Change (MARCC, 2009 and 2014), published by the Ministry of Environment, Nature and Tourism.

The National Development Strategy of 2008 defines the country’s policy up to the year 2021. The strategy calls for the promotion of Mongolia’s “capacity to adapt to climate change and desertification, to reduce their negative impacts”, with adaptation activities and measures identified.

The Second National Communication to the UNFCCC lists a number of priority adaptation options and measures in different sectors vulnerable to climate change: animal husbandry, arable farming, water resources, human health and forestry. Within these sectors, strategies and measures to combat land and pasture degradation and desertification are identified in the 2010 National Programme to Combat Desertification and in the National Programme for Climate Change.

The government also approved The Livestock Programme, which includes directives relevant for climate change adaptation in animal husbandry. A study for the National Climate Risk Management Strategy was prepared in 2009. The Plan seeks to build climate resilience at the community level through reducing risk, and facilitating adaptation.

To date, Mongolia does not have any litigation listed.

Mongolia has a sole legislative body, the State Great Hural (the Parliament – “Hural” means “meeting” in Mongolian). The legislature is unicameral and consists of 76 members, 48 elected by a mixed member proportional system representing single member constituencies, and 28 elected by a proportional representation system. Members serve a four-year term, and the State Great Hural can override any presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote.

The Parliament holds two sessions per year, one in the spring and one in the autumn. As the supreme governmental body, the 76 members are empowered to pass and amend laws, define domestic, foreign and financial policy, set economic and social development guidelines, ratify international agreements, and supervise the implementation of its laws and decisions.

The President, the government (usually the Prime Minister or a Deputy Prime Minister, or Ministers who are members of Parliament) and individual members can propose legislation. The Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs is responsible for drafting laws in collaboration with the relevant ministry for a specific proposal; a working group is formed to draft the law, which will be submitted to parliament. The working group may seek input from private and public organisations, NGOs, and community-based organisations. Draft laws come in three varieties: a new law, an amendment of an existing law, a rewriting of an existing law. The last elections for Parliament took place in June 2016, the next is expected for 2020. The last Presidential election happened in 2013, the next election is expected to take place in January 2017. The President has prioritised climate change mitigation and environment protection and has contributed to a number of international climate forums. In June 2014, the Minister of Environment and Green Development was elected the first president of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA).

Last modified 23 August, 2017