Climate Change Act, 2016 ( 2016 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

This Act provides a framework for promoting climate resilient low carbon economic development. It aims to (Art 3-2): “mainstream climate change responses into development planning, decision making and implementation; build resilience and enhance adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change; formulate programmes and plans to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of human and ecological…read more

National Drought Management Authority Act (No. 4 of 2016) ( 2016 )

This law establishes the National Drought Management Authority, which is responsible for: Overseeing Kenya's drought management policies and programs Coordinating the government's drought response and climate change initiatives Promoting the integration of drought response into development programs and projects Developing a drought early warning system Creating contingency plans Establishing and reviewing preparedness strategies Designing and…read more

Environment and Land Court Act (Cap. 12A) ( 2011 )

This law establishes Kenya's Environment and Land Court, which has jurisdiction over all matters related to environmental planning and protection, climate issues, land use planning, title, tenure, boundaries, rates, rents, valuations, mining, minerals and other natural resources, compulsory acquisition of land, land administration and management, public, private and community land and contracts, choses in action…read more

Energy Act 2006, Parts of which is executed by the Energy Management Regulations 2012 ( 2006 )

Encompassing several laws related to energy, the Act has a very broad scope, covering all forms of energy, from fossil fuels to renewables. The Act mandates the government to promote the development and use of renewable energy, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomass, solar, wind, hydro¬power, biogas, charcoal, fuel-wood, tidal, wave, municipal waste, among others. The Act…read more

National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022 (NCCAP) ( 2018 )

This plan aims to strengthen the country's path towards sustainable, climate-resilient development while achieving low carbon climate resilient development. It builds on the previous Action Plan spanning the period 2013-2017. The NCCAP consists in three documents, including an Adaptation Technical Analysis Report (volume II), and a Mitigation Technical Analysis Report (volume III). The Plan seeks in…read more

National Wildlife Strategy 2030 ( 2018 )

Kenya's National Wildlife Strategy 2030 is based on four pillars: Resilient Ecosystems Engagement by all Kenyans Evidence based Decision Making Sustainability and Governance It recognises that climate change places Kenya's wildlife at risk, but also that ecosystem conservation and management can contribute to greater climate resilience by serving as a form of adaptation. It specifically…read more

Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Strategy 2017-2026 ( 2017 )

The broad objective of the Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Strategy 2017-2026 (KCSAS) is to adapt to climate change, build the resilience of agricultural systems, and minimize emissions for enhanced food and nutritional security and improved livelihoods. The specific objectives of the KCSAS are to (i) enhance the adaptive capacity and resilience of farmers, pastoralists, and…read more

A Climate Risk Management Framework for Kenya ( 2016 / Adaptation Framework )

The Climate Risk Management Framework for Kenya outlines how the government intends to harmonise its climate change and disaster risk policies. According to the framework, there are ten priority areas that overlap between climate change and disaster risk policies, which can be areas for government intervention. Specifically, the government intends to: Harmonise programmes and projects…read more

National Policy on Climate Finance ( 2016 )

This policy accomplishes several goals. First, it describes the current legal and policy framework for climate financing that is relevant for Kenya, focusing on both domestic and international sources. Second, it outlines the role that climate financing could play in each of Kenya's most important economic sectors (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, trade, tourism, manufacturing, water…read more

National Environment Policy 2013 ( 2013 )

The Policy aims to provide a framework for an integrated approach to sustainable management of Kenya’s environment and natural resources. In particular it proposes to strengthen: • Legal and institutional framework for good governance • Integrate environmental management with economic growth, poverty reduction and improving livelihoods • Research and capacity development • Promote new environment…read more

National Climate Change Response Strategy 2010 As implemented by 2013-2017 Climate Change Action Plan ( 2010 )

The National Climate Change Response Strategy outlines its objectives as to : • Enhance the understanding of the global climate change regime, negotiation process and develop priorities for Kenya • Assess the evidence and impacts of climate change in Kenya • Recommend adaptation and mitigation measures • Develop assessment and capacity building frameworks • Recommend…read more

Agriculture (Farm Forestry) Rules 2009 ( 2009 )

The Agriculture Farm Forestry rules of 2009, designed by the Minister for Agriculture after consultations with the Central Agricultural Board, require farmers to establish and maintain farm forestry on at least 10 % of every of their agriculture lands. The underlying objectives behind these efforts to regulate the destruction of vegetation for agricultural expansion are…read more

National Disaster Response Plan ( 2009 )

Kenya's National Disaster Response Plan outlines both the high-level principles and assumptions that go into the government's planning for disaster response, as well as the concrete procedures, roles, and responsibilities of disaster responders. The Plan identifies droughts, floods, landslides, tsunamis, fires, and other hazards as particular risks facing Kenya, and disaggregates risks by province. The…read more

National Policy for Disaster Management ( 2009 / Adaptation Framework )

The policy recognizes that climate change contributes significantly to Kenya’s increasing vulnerability to disasters in the last two decades and affects seriously the lives and livelihoods of communities. The policy therefore aims to institutionalise mechanisms to address these disasters and associated vulnerabilities stressing the central role of climate change in any sustainable and integrated National…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

30% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to BAU scenario (143 MtCO2eq)

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reach at least 10% tree cover of land area

LULUCF/Forestry: General

Source: NDC

Increase forest cover to 10% of total land area; rehabilitate degraded lands, including rangelands; increase resilience of the wildlife and tourism sector by 2023 compared with a scenario

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Source(s): National C... (2018 / Executive)

281,000 ha cropland converstion to agroforest by 2030

Land Use Change | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): National C... (2010 / Executive)

960,000 ha forest restoration by 2030 against a 2012 baseline

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): National C... (2010 / Executive)

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

2,275 MW geothermal capacity development by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): National C... (2010 / Executive)

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Annual per capita water availability from 647 m3 to 1000m3 by 2023

Water Management | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2023 | Source(s): National C... (2018 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Kenya ratified the Kyoto protocol in 2005, and supports the UNFCCC process as a Non-Annex 1 country. It submitted its first national communication in 2002. Given that its natural resource-dependent economy is highly vulnerable to rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and other extreme weather conditions such as droughts and flooding, developmental policies and priorities are mindful of the need to mainstream climate change concerns with national development priorities; the constitution has a legal commitment to attain ecologically sustainable development which forms the basis for its climate change policy framework. Kenya has expended significant efforts to forge a comprehensive framework to address climate issues responding to the development of the international climate change regime since the 1990s. The climate change legal/policy portfolio is evolving towards an integrated framework.

In 2010, the Ministry for Environment and Mineral Resources launched the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS), complemented by the 2013-2017 Climate Change Action Plan. The strategy’s primary focus is to ensure that adaptation and mitigation measures are integrated in all government’s planning, budgeting and development objectives. The Strategy identifies and recommends specific measures that include suggestions on carbon markets, green energy development, research and development and institutional framework for climate governance. The 2013-2017 Action Plan provides develops implementation framework for the NCCRS.

The strategy recognises that Kenya stands to benefit from carbon markets (CDM and VCM) by increasing access to international carbon markets through mitigation measures (promotion of energy efficiency and renewable technologies) and building capacity at institutional and community level.

The NCCRS proposes: 1) calculation of the baseline GHG Grid Emission Factor (GEF) for the electricity grid to facilitate CDM projects in the power sector and assist carbon project developers and consultants, 2) target capacity building for the private sector and investors to increase awareness of GHG reduction project developments and markets, e.g. developing a detailed handbook on the opportunities, role of actors and appropriate processes, 3) a manual to guide CDM implementation, 4) strengthening relevant institutions and removing barriers to carbon trading such as high initial transaction costs and low level of awareness of CDM potential on the part of private sector, particularly investment and financial organisations, 5) providing tax incentives and favorable import tariffs on technology that reduce emissions, 6) clear energy pricing and CDM project policies including a general institutional framework and good governance, 7) ensuring that Kenya establishes itself as a cost-effective host country to GHG emission reduction projects, 8) designing a ranking of project types from the easiest and most viable to the most difficult and least viable, 9) creating a database of existing projects, emission reduction volumes, other benefits, project developers, financiers, government support, and 10) exploring ways to integrate carbon markets into the main economy.

Over the past five years the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources has produced several drafts of a National Environmental Policy (NEP). According to the 13th revised draft (2013), one of the core objectives of the NEP is to establish “a framework for an integrated approach to planning and sustainable management of Kenya’s environment and its natural resources”. The draft recognises climate change as one of the direct causes of natural disasters, and proposes measures to address climate issues. The five actions suggested are: 1) imple­ment the National Climate Change Response Strategy; 2) raise awareness of opportunities for adaptation, mainly through technology transfer and capacity building; 3) develop and implement investment and technology transfer projects under the CDM; 4) develop an integrated, improved early warning and response system for climate and disaster risks; and 5) build and strengthen research capacity on climate change and related environmental issues.

Based on this the government has promoted a new and comprehensive climate law – this Climate Change Bill is currently being amended through parliament debates. Even though Parliament approved Climate Change Bill in 2012, the president vetoed the law, citing the lack of public involvement in the discussion of the new bill. The proposal was returned to Parliament and is under discussion again; the bill passed the second reading in the parliament in July 2014 and is due for a third reading. The bill proposes to co-ordinate climate change-related activities through the establishment of National Climate Change Council. It is suggested that the council will have legal functions, responsibilities and powers, to: (1) advise national and county governments on international conventions, legislative measures; (2) co-ordinate climate change-related activities between government and non-governmental agencies; (3) to conduct international negotiations; (4) prepare reports and national communication to the UNFCCC; (5) establish and manage a national GHG registry; (6) establish a Climate Change Fund that will be vested in the Council. The bill proposes mandatory public consultation for all climate change-related policy processes.

In September 2014 the government updated its National Climate Change Policy Framework emphasising its focus on sustainable development, resilience and adaptation. The policy proposes to “to enhance adaptive capacity and build resilience to climate variability and change, while promoting low carbon development pathways”. It also proposes low carbon growth initiatives such as increased geothermal electricity, switching freight from road to rail, reforestation, agro-forestry, promotion of clean technologies, gender equality, participation in voluntary emissions reduction programmes, mainstreaming climate change into planning process and enabling favorable regulatory architecture. The policy is due for Parliamentary approval in the first half of 2015.

Given that sustained economic growth is required to reduce poverty, GHG emissions are expected to increase until 2030 in all sectors except forestry, where emissions are likely to fall after 2020 due to reduced clearing of forests and increases in forest cover due to ongoing afforestation and reforestation activities. Emissions in other sectors will grow significantly to 2030, with transport emissions tripling and those from waste sector doubling.

Energy Supply

Biomass provides 69% of energy requirements while petroleum accounts for about 22% and electricity 9%. Renewable energy sources already contribute to 74.5% of electricity production with fossil fuels filling the rest (25.5%). The renewable energy sector is very active and the government has proposed clear strategies for the future. Kenya is one of six countries that are part of Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Programme in Low Income Countries (SREP), which operates under the Climate Investment Funds.

A Feed-in Tariff was launched in 2008 for wind, small hydro power and biomass (municipal waste and cane bagasse). The National Strategy (NCCPF) proposes a wide range of strategies to exploit renewable energy potential. These include institutional reform, public private partnership, commercial exploitation, finance, research and development, community based power generation and exploring new energy sources such as municipal waste. The policy proposes to establish a Renewable Energy Research Centre within the National Energy Institute to promote renewable energy. An inter-ministerial Renewable Energy Resources Advisory Committee (RERAC) is proposed to advice the cabinet secretary on renewable energy matters. The government plans to transform the Rural Electrification Authority into the National Electrification and Renewable Energy Authority (NERA) to be the lead agency for development of renewable energy resources other than geothermal, which will be developed by the Geothermal Development Company (GDC), which has a target of 1,887MW by 2017 and at least 5,500MW by 2030.

Strategies across sectors include:

Hydro (accounts for over 50% of the electricity production): risk mitigation programmes as well as promotion of small hydro projects.

Biomass: make an inventory of sources and capacity, commercial exploitation, land reservation and promote the use of biomass briquettes.

Biofuels: fiscal incentives, balance competition for land between liquid biofuel feedstock and food production, pilot programme for 10% ethanol-gasoline (E-10 Mandate) blend in government and public transport vehicles, incentives to encourage 5% biodiesel in all diesel vehicles and 100% biodiesel in all isolated power generation plants.

Biogas: ‘Biogas for Better Life’ programme to construct of at least 5,000 bio-digesters by 2017, 6,500 by 2022 and 10,000 by 2030.

Solar: Electrification of institutions far from grid using solar PV systems. The strategy claims 977 institutions including primary and secondary schools, dispensaries, health and administrative centres were fitted with solar PV systems by end of 2013. The government expects a 20% growth in the solar PV sector leading to a 10MW capacity generating 22GWh annually by 2020. Further measures include converting 11 isolated diesel plants to hybrid stations, promoting the installation of at least 100,000 units of solar PV home solar systems by 2017, distribute solar lanterns as substitute for kerosene for lighting in rural areas, poor peri-urban and urban settlements, mandatory regulations for solar water heating systems and ensure installation of at least 350,000 solar water heating units by 2017, facilitation of land, fast clearance of licence and permits. Government sets a target of at least 100MW from solar by 2017, 200MW by 2022 and 500MW by 2030.

Wind: With wind energy potential of as high as 346 W/m2 and speeds of over 6m/s, the government expects to add 20MW by end of 2013 to the existing 5.45MW of projects that are existing, proposed and in pipeline. Through various measures including better grid access, private sale or net metering and so on, the government expects a capacity boost of at least 500MW by 2017 and 1,000 by 2022 and 3,000MW by 2030.

Energy Demand

Increased population growth in urban and rural areas, increased motorisation and air transport, growing GDP and consumption have led the number of electricity consumers to more than double from 2004/05 to 2011. Energy demand is the second-largest emitting sector accounting for about 16% of emissions, followed by transportation at about 10%. Industrial processes and waste contributed about 4% and 1% of GHG emissions respectively. A clear legal framework to address this is at an early stage of development. The energy management regulation of 2012 mandates and outlines a framework for individual organisations’ Energy Management Policy that include measures for energy efficiency and conservation.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Agriculture and forestry sectors accounted for about two-thirds of total emissions in 1994. The agricultural sector contributed 33% (90% from livestock) and forestry contributed 32% (mainly through deforestation, forest degradation, charcoal production, creation of agricultural land) of total emissions in 2010.

Even though there is no specific REDD+ legal framework, the constitution mandates a forest cover of 10% from the existing 6% through an aggressive afforestation, reforestation and restoration programme. Policy initiatives to achieve this target include the Land Policy, Draft Environment Policy, National Climate Change Response Strategy and Action Plans, Forests Act, Agriculture Act, and Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act. As an observer country to the UN-REDD Programme and a participant country to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, Kenya is developing its National REDD+ Strategy and implementation framework.

The 2005 Forest Policy (Being updated as National Forest Policy 2014) addresses indigenous forest management, farm forestry, industrial forest development, dry land forestry, forest health and protection, private sector involvement and participatory forest management. It recognises the benefits of involving local communities and other stakeholders in forest management. The new policy proposes to mainstream the forestry sector in economic recovery and enable it to contribute significantly to poverty alleviation strategies. The Kenya Forest Act establishes the autonomous Kenya Forest Service, and contains provisions on forest management, with emphasis on engaging local communities and promoting private investments. The Forest Policy aims to establish a Forest Reference Emission Level and a National Forest Monitoring System.

Land use in forest areas is also regulated by the Agriculture (Farm Forestry) Rules. Adopted in 2009, these Rules require farmers to establish and maintain farm forestry on at least 10% of every agricultural land holding. One aim is to preserve and sustain the environment and combat climate change and global warming. They also include provisions on enforcement measures and inspection.

National Land Policy proposes to address degradation; soil erosion and pollution to enable conservation and management of land based natural resources, fragile and critical ecosystems including wetlands and arid lands as well as address tenure insecurity issues to enable equitable use of Land.

Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP) is a programme developed by the Vi Agroforestry programme with support from the World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund for soil carbon sequestration and above-ground sequestration in trees. Through Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (SLAM) methodology the programme claims to be involving 60,000 farmers on 45,000 hectares to switch to climate-smart agricultural practices and increasing crop yields (World Bank reports crop yield increase of USD200-400/ha/year) as well as resilience to climate change. In January 2014, the project issued its first carbon credits (representing a reduction of 24,788 metric tons of CO2) under the Verified Carbon Standard for sequestering carbon in soil.

Adaptation

Kenya’s natural resource-dependent economy is highly vulnerable to impacts from climate change. More than 70% of rural livelihoods are dependent on rain-fed subsistence agriculture and are affected by declining agricultural production, unpredictable rainfall, reduced soil productivity, soil erosion and increased evapo-transpiration; over the past five decades, the country’s famine cycles seems to have reduced from 20 years to 12 years to two years to almost every year in the past decade.

The Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL comprises 83% of Kenya’s land mass) are under threat from land degradation and desertification caused by climatic variations, and human impacts such as overgrazing of livestock, deforestation and urbanisation. There is loss of biodiversity, change in structure and composition of vegetation, decrease in forest coverage, rapid land cover deterioration, depletion of quality and quantity of water through the destruction of catchments and underground aquifers. Increased frequency of droughts in the ASAL is causing higher livestock morbidity and mortality due to reduced availability of forage, increased disease incidences. Reduction in extreme cold temperature occurrences in the ASALs, increased depletion of glaciers on Mount Kenya, sea level rise, higher frequency and intensity of droughts and floods are ascribed to the increasing temperature trends since the 1960s. There is increasing concern about imminent water scarcity.

In fisheries, there are impacts on species composition including presence of non-resident species and evidence of thinning of species and biomass abundance due to the effects of temperature increase on nesting and feeding grounds. Cold-water aquaculture is becoming non-feasible.

The emerging policy landscape, including the draft national climate change policy, recognises these vulnerabilities.

In 2011 the government adopted the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy, in which it recognises the direct implications of climate change for food and nutrition security. The Policy proposes a set of measures addressing both risk management and adaptation to climate change. The government committed to promote integration of climate change adaptation in agricultural development programmes and policies.

The measures include – joint public-private involvement, diversified and sustained production, better storage and creation of strategic reserves, better trade to enable commercial access, on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities, nutrient fortification, cross-sectoral and ministry co-operation, expanding early warning systems and emergency preparedness, cash transfers, public works programmes, institutional and financial mechanisms including advocacy programmes. In addition to assisting local communities to develop rapid adaptation mechanisms, the Policy also sets out to develop more effective mechanisms of drought prevention, preparedness and mitigation; instruments of irrigation. A Drought Management Authority and Drought Contingency Fund to respond to climate change related calamities have been created.

The National Climate Change response Strategy of 2010 promises to promote drought-tolerant, disease- and pest-resistant and early maturing crop varieties, orphan crops, (e.g. sorghum, cassava, pigeon pea, sweet potato), post-harvest processing, storage and value-added products, breeding of animals from various agro-ecological zones that can adapt well to climatic variances and special livestock insurance schemes to spread and transfer the risks from climate change. These are integrated in the 2009-2012 Ministerial Strategic Plan for water resources by recognising the need to proactively engage with the water sector are central to its adaptation strategy.

Save Lamu et al. v. National Environmental Management Authority and Amu Power Co. Ltd. (Opened in 2016 )

Citation/reference number: Tribunal Appeal No. Net 196 of 2016
Jurisdiction: Kenya
Core objective(s): Whether the National Environmental Management Authority violated public participation requirements in issuing a license to construct a coal-fired power plant and whether a coal company’s environmental impact assessment adequately considered climate change and other factors
Current status: closed

Kenya’s National Environmental Tribunal (“the Tribunal”) set aside the issuance of a license by the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) to Amu Power Company for the construction of the Lamu Coal-fired Power Plant (“Lamu Plant”). The Lamu Plant would be the first coal-fired power plant in Kenya. The Tribunal found that the National Environmental Management…read more

In 2010 Kenya’s unicameral Parliament was replaced with a bicameral Parliament comprising a National Assembly and a Senate. The National Assembly consists of a Speaker, 290 MPs elected by constituencies, 47 women MPs elected by registered voters from each county and 12 members nominated by political parties according to the proportion of members they have in the National Assembly to represent special interests including youth, persons with disabilities and workers. The Senate consists of 47 members, each elected by the registered voters of each county, 16 women members nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate, two members (a man and a woman), representing young people and two members, (a man and a woman), representing persons with disabilities.

The last general elections were held in 2013 and the next one is due in 2017.

Proposed laws are called bills, and are either Public or Private. Public Bills concern matters of public policy or changing existing legisla­tion. The government initiates them with its executive power while private members of either house can promote a private bill.

The first stage is the drafting of a bill by a ministry, in co-ordination with the Kenya Law Reform Commission (KLRC) and the Attorney-General’s Chambers (AGC). The first draft is sent to the Commission for the Implementation of the Constitution (CIC), which opens a compulsory consultation process with stakeholders and civil society. Drawing from the various contribu­tions and working with the CIC, the AGC prepares the Bill. The draft Bill is submitted for Cabinet approval and if approved, the Bill is published in the Kenya Gazette and introduced in Parliament.

Parliament scrutinises bills in three readings. The committee in charge of a specific issue/area normally conducts the first reading. Next, the entire Parliament discusses the Bill, before returning the text to the Committee with amendments. The third reading takes place after the Committee has reviewed the draft. Once passed in Parliament, the AG presents the Bill to the Cabinet before it returns to Parliament for a last round of debate. The text approved by Parliament is submitted to the President for assent. If the President signs the bill, it is published and becomes a law. The President can return the bill to the Speaker of the National Assembly to be considered again by Parliament. If Parliament agrees with the President’s proposals or concerns, the bill is accordingly amended and forwarded to the President for assent. If it rejects the President’s amendments to the bill by a two-thirds majority, the bill is returned to him and he is compelled to sign it into law.

Last modified 23 August, 2017