Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Law, No. 3 of 2010 ( 2012 )

The renewable energy and energy efficiency law provides the legislative framework to encourage exploitation of enable energy sources, further supply-side energy efficiency and streamline private sector investment through incentives. The law states that to achieve the objectives the government will focus on: • Increasing investment in renewable energy extraction, thereby increasing the proportion of renewables…read more

General Electricity Law No 64 of 2003 ( 2003 )

This law is a general regulatory framework for the generation, distribution and sale of electricity in the Kingdom, and has been updated over the years. The 2003 update includes language that is directly related to climate change despite the fact that the law does not name climate change as an objective. The law states that…read more

The National Climate Change Policy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 2013-2020 ( 2013 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

Jordan’s National Climate Change Strategy is a seven-year plan with three main objectives: • To achieve a pro-active, climate risk resilient Jordan; remaining a low-carbon growing economy, sustainable water and agricultural resources, healthy ecosystems and climate resilient communities • To build adaptive capacity of communities and institutions, including social issues related to gender and vulnerable…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Maximally 1.5% (unconditional) to 14% (conditional) reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the BAU scenario

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

39% natural gas by 2025 in the energy mix

Gas | Target year: 2025

20% energy efficiency improvement by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): The Nation... (2013 / Executive)

11% renewables in the total energy mix by 2025

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2025

Source: NDC

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

25% afforestation of barren forest areas in the rain belt areas

Afforestation

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies

25% commuters using public transport by 2025

Public Transport | Target year: 2025

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies

Reduce solid waste disposed in landfills to 60% by 2025; 40% solid waste re-used by 2025

Solid Waste | Target year: 2025

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

As detailed in Jordan’s third report to the UNFCCC (submitted in December 2014), the country stands to disproportionately suffer from climate change in the future, especially with regards to drought and water scarcity. Jordan faces severe water scarcity (it receives 145 m3 per capita, per year). The government has stressed the need to adapt to threatened water scarcity, especially in the agriculture sector. The Minister of Environment has declared water scarcity as “the single most important constraint to country growth and development”.

In 2013 Jordan launched its National Climate Change Policy for 2013-2020, claiming it as a first of its kind in the Middle East. Jordan considers itself a leader in climate change, having presented the first UNFCCC report of all the non-Annex 1 countries that are party to the treaty.

The plan has three long-term goals:

  • To achieve a pro-active, climate risk resilient Jordan; remaining a low-carbon growing economy with sustainable water and agricultural resources, healthy ecosystems and climate resilient communities
  • To build adaptive capacity of communities and institutions, including social issues related to gender and vulnerable groups, increasing resiliency of ecosystems to climate change, especially as it relates to water resources and agriculture; taking full advantage of any mitigation opportunities
  • To prioritise both mitigation and adaptation to climate change, but with emphasis on adaptation, given Jordan’s relatively low carbon-emitting economy and vulnerability to water shortages as a result of climate change

In addition to the National Climate Change Policy, written by the Ministry of Environment and endorsed by the Council of Ministers, other ministries, including the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health, are revising current strategic plans or drafting new strategic plans that incorporate and/or strengthen climate change objectives.

Strategic plans developed by ministries and in some cases, such as the National Climate Chance Policy, considered and endorsed by the Council of Ministers, have been the choice policy tool to confront climate change to date. Only two pieces of legislation, both related to renewable energy or energy efficiency, respond directly to climate change. Given the authority of the executive branch, the Council of Ministers and their respected ministries, strategic ministerial plans carry considerable weight despite lacking the juridical aspect of parliamentary legislation.

Energy demand

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources estimates that energy demand will reach 16.8m toe by 2020, and increase by 50% increase from current levels in 50 years’ time. This represents a stress on the economy because Jordan imports nearly all of its energy (96% as of 2007), namely oil and natural gas. But based on recent energy efficiency measures, energy consumption could be reduced by 20% solely by introducing more efficient means of extraction, supply and consumption.

The General Energy Law regulates energy efficiency for some electronic devices to increase efficiency at the consumer level. The government is also phasing out electricity subsidies that artificially lowered the cost paid by households for their energy. By 2008, it is reported that most subsidies had been eliminated or reduced, incentivising users to curtail wasteful consumption.

Energy supply

Jordan sees significant opportunities to increase energy efficiency and overcome a number of supply-side barriers. According to the second UNFCCC report barriers to efficiency are: (1) lack of knowledge among energy users of the benefits of energy efficiency, (2) lack of expertise to develop energy efficiency projects, (3) high initial implementation cost, (4) lack of suitable financing mechanisms, as banks lack experience and awareness in energy efficiency and need assistance on risk analysis and mitigation to achieve bankability, and (5) lack of consistent institutional frameworks.

Much of the savings projected will be achieved by increasing the amount of natural gas imported from Egypt and possibly Iraq and Saudi Arabia; but the government has also introduced legislation to increase national production and consumption of energy from renewable sources (defined as solar, wind, biofuels, geothermal and hydropower). The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law (2010) establishes the legal framework to open land to renewable energy extraction as well as a fund to finance such projects.

The law was developed with reference to the Master Strategy of the Energy Sector, approved by the Council of Ministers in 2004 and updated in 2007. The plan set the goal of raising renewable energy to 20% of total energy consumed (from 1% of the total in 2007). Additionally, it detailed obstacles to achieving national energy objectives. One obstacle to increasing renewable energy production was the high cost of investment and lack of large tracts of the land necessary for many types of renewable technologies. Such challenges have been addressed by establishing funds to encourage investment and the legal means to allocate state-owned lands and to buy privately-owned lands.

As of 2012, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources had approved 34 renewable energy investments by international and local companies, 22 in solar power and 12 in wind power for a total of 1,000 MW production. 

Energy Demand

Most legislation concerning energy efficiency and emissions reductions has focussed on the supply side. However the government has initiated a Demand Side Management programme to make consumption more efficient. One project highlighted in Jordan’s Third UNFCCC National Communication is the Variable Speed Drive Project. With USD65m in financing over five years, the project incentivises voluntary upgrades of motors in heavy equipment to control speed and reduce energy consumption. The Third Communication also list a number of proposed projects, from home insulation to using more efficient street lamps; however there is no stated timeframe for their implementation.

REDD + and LULUCF

The Ministry of Agriculture is reportedly revising its National Strategy of Agriculture for 2013-2020. It should take into account the National Climate Change Policy. Specifically, the revised plan shall focus on the agricultural sector’s resilience to climate change.

Adaptation

In the 2014 National Communication to the UNFCCC, a new vulnerability assessment is presented within a sophisticated framework of risk and capacity for resilience. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change is presented in seven sectors – water, agriculture, biodiversity, coastal areas, urban areas, health sector, and local communities – with a set of policy recommendations for each sector.

To date, Jordan does not have any litigation listed.

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy composed of three branches: the executive branch, the government (the Prime Minister and Cabinet), the legislature, and the judiciary. The legislative branch is bicameral: the House of Notables, containing 75 senators appointed by the King, and the House of Deputies, containing 150 deputies directly elected by the King’s subjects. The latest election for the House of Deputies was held in September 2016, the next is expected for 2020. The constitution grants the King authority to dissolve either house of Parliament and to expel any member of either the House or Senate at will. The normal parliamentary term is four years, which may be extended for one year by royal decree.

Jordan has a multi-party parliamentary political system. There are 30 political parties registered but few are considered to oppose the ruling government or executive authority. During the “Arab Spring”, protests and popular pressure resulted in the King reshuffling the Cabinet (including the Prime Minister) and passing some political reforms to further democratic participation.

Legislative power is shared between the government and both houses of Parliament. Legislation may be submitted as a bill by either house of Parliament, although it is more commonly the Prime Minister who proposes legislation to the House of Deputies (the Lower House), where a special legislative committee considers the proposal. The deputies may accept, amend or reject the proposal. Should a proposal pass the sub-committee, the government drafts a formal bill, which it then submits to the House of Deputies for a vote. If approved by the House of Deputies, the bill is considered by the House of Notables (or Senate) for debate and vote. Should a bill fail to pass the upper house, it is returned to the Lower House for amendment. Should the House and Senate fail to agree on draft legislation, it can be passed by a two-thirds majority vote of a joint session.

A bill passed by both Houses of Parliament becomes law if the King declares it so through Royal Decree. Should the King reject the bill, it returns to the House of Deputies with explanations for his refusal; and the elected officials repeat the debate and vote again. If the elected Lower House and the King-appointed Senate meet for a joint vote and pass a bill formerly rejected by the King by a two-thirds majority, the draft legislation becomes law by Legislative Decree.

Last modified 22 August, 2017