This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Decree-Law No. 111/2019 ( 2019 )

This Decree-Law establishes urgent measures for the definition of national strategic policy to combat climate change and improve air quality, in order to comply with directive 2008/50 / EC obligations. It also sets measures to encourage sustainable mobility in metropolitan areas, reforestation measures, and the gathering and publication of environmental data.…read more

Law No. 37/ May 2019 ( 2019 )

This law establishes provisions for the fulfilment of the obligations deriving from Italy's membership of the European Union. It notably establishes provisions regarding the participation of specific entities in the greenhouse gas emission allowance auctions (article 13). It also ends the provisions on extending the incentive period for biomass, biogas and bioliquid plants by repealing paragraphs…read more

Law Decree no. 145/20131 (the “Destinazione Italia Decree”) ( 2014 )

This Decree introduces an optional incentive system for existing plants and new rules for plants benefiting from incentives based on electricity rates. Among others, the Decree presents a new optional incentive scheme to certain renewable electricity producers. Producers owning power plants that have already obtained green certificates and/or all-inclusive tariffs, may do one of the…read more

Law no. 116, ratifying with amendments the Law Decree no. 91 of 24 June 2014 on “Urgent provisions for the agricultural sector, environment, company development and, inter alia, reduction of energy bills” ( 2014 )

The Law ratifies with amendments the Law Decree on “Urgent provisions for the agricultural sector, environment, company development and reduction of energy bills” and lays down new provisions on feed-in-tariffs for photovoltaic and other renewables sources plants. It regulates the restructuration of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic plants (capacity > 200 kW). Starting from 1st January…read more

2010 and 2019 Finance Laws on Energy efficient buildings and biofuel standards and on incentives for biogas ( 2010 )

The Finance law 2010 provides incentives for energy efficient buildings and the use of biofuel. Fossil fuels are subject to specific excise duties on the basis of weight or volume units. Biofuels are incentivised through a reduction of this excise duty. In particular, the Budget Law 2010 defines a maximum of 18,000 tonnes of biofuels…read more

Cleaner vehicle purchase incentives (Decree Law No. 5 of 2009) ( 2009 )

In February 2009, as part of measures aimed at supporting industrial sectors in crisis, the Council of Ministers launched a temporary incentive scheme for consumers to replace their old vehicles with new ones meeting certain environmental criteria. Energy – demand-side policies: the scheme applies to cars, light commercial vehicles, as well as motorcycles and scooters.…read more

Law concerning anti-crisis measures: energy provisions (Law no. 102) ( 2009 )

The Law is designed to accelerate the deployment of more advanced, efficient and energy-saving technologies. While the law does not specify energy performance thresholds for the equipment, the measure aims to encourage the replacement of existing equipment with newer, more efficient technology. The law also provides that depreciation rates for capital goods should vary according…read more

Finance Law 2008 (Law No. 244 24/12/2007 and Law No. 222 29/11/2007); M.D. 18.12.08; Law 99/09) ( 2008 )

This Law confirmed the 2007 Budget Law measures, and extended the deadline of borne expenditures from December 2007 to 2010. Putting a price on carbon: the revisions concerning green certificates are twofold. First, the incentive period is raised to 15 years. Second, the number of certificates issued varies depending on the type of renewable source,…read more

Reorganisation of Energy Sector Regulation (Law no. 239) ( 2004 )

In 2004, the Italian government devolved power to Italian regions to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources while maintaining the national scale of such promotion. Energy – demand-side policies: several measures served to reorganise the energy markets and encourage competition, including the expansion of green certificate trading from renewable and CHP projects to include…read more

Finance Laws with particular climate measures ( 2001 )

Energy efficient buildings and biofuel blend incentives (2010 Finance Law): The Finance law 2010 provides incentives for energy efficient buildings and the use of biofuel. Fossil fuels are subject to specific excise duties on the basis of weight or volume units. Biofuels are incentivised through a reduction of this excise duty. In particular, the Budget Law…read more

Fund for GHG emissions reduction and energy efficiency (Finance Law 2001) ( 2000 )

The financial law, approved at the end of the year 2000, establishes a fund for the reduction of atmospheric emissions and the promotion of energy efficiency and sustainable energy sources. The fund is financed from a portion equal to 3% of the receipts accruing from Italy’s carbon tax. The fund will finance up to 80%…read more

Act No. 225 establishment of the National Civil Protection Service ( 1992 )

This act establishes Italy's National Civil Protection Service to protect the integrity of life, property, settlements, and the environment from natural disasters and catastrophes. It assigns responsibility for forecasting, disaster prevention, and emergency response to the Civil Protection Department, and assigns specific disaster risk management functions to subnational and local governments. Importantly, it allows the…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Ministerial Decree of March 2, 2018, promoting the use of biomethane in the transport sector ( 2018 )

This Decree aims at valuing agricultural waste and raise the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector. The document defines the connection conditions of biomethane production plants to the natueral gas network, discusses the quality and sustainability of biomethane, and examines means of promoting biomethane in transport.…read more

RES Decree 2016 and RES Decree 2019-2021 ( 2016 )

The Ministerial Decree providing incentives to electricity production from renewable energy sources (The RES Decree) 2016 updates the allocation scheme of incentives to renewable energy other than photovoltaic. The scheme covers wind farms, hydro, biomass and biogas, CSP and other non-photovoltaic renewable energy sources for the year 2016. It maintains the structure of the previous incentive 2012-2015 regime, while…read more

Climate Adaptation Strategy (Decree of the Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea 0000086/CLE) ( 2015 / Adaptation Framework )

The Climate Adaptation Strategy establishes specific objectives to be reached by end of December 2016 and it is to be updated within 5 years. The National Adaptation Strategy provides an extensive knowledge on past, present and future climate change and on impacts/vulnerabilities to climate change of different sectors, including: water resources; desertification, soil degradation and…read more

National Energy Strategy (Interministerial Decree of 8 March 2013) ( 2013 )

The National Energy Strategy (NES), which has a double time horizon (2020 and 2050), directs efforts towards substantially improving the competitiveness of the energy system and environmental sustainability. The results expected by 2020 are: • Wholesale prices of all energy sources will be aligned with average European average price levels, resulting in savings of about…read more

Thermal account, incentive schemes set up by Ministerial Decree No 12/2012 ( 2013 )

The Thermal Account is the first nationwide direct incentive scheme for the generation of renewable thermal energy, and the first scheme encouraging public authorities to implement energy efficiency actions in buildings and technical installations. The scheme is addressed to public authorities and to private parties i.e. individuals, condominiums, businesses and farms. GSE (Energy Service Operator)…read more

Special fund to support the implementation of energy efficiency targets (Decree Law no. 40) ( 2010 )

This decree established a special fund for the implementation of objectives related to energy efficiency, environmental protection and workplace safety. The Decree specifies the activities towards which funding is dedicated. The fund provides incentives for the following: High efficiency appliances; replacing motorcycles; purchase of new energy efficient buildings; purchase and installation of inverters; high efficiency…read more

Climate Change Action Plan (CIPE Deliberation No. 135/2007) ( 2007 / Mitigation Framework )

In June 2007, a revision of the national guidelines on GHG reduction was approved. The environment committee set out a comprehensive action plan aimed at helping Italy comply with GHG reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. Energy supply: among the proposals was a ban on the sale of household appliances ranked below A on the…read more

New Feed-In premium for photovoltaic systems (Ministerial Decree) ( 2007 )

The decree introduced a new version of the feed-in premium scheme applied to photovoltaic plants connected to the grid by individuals, registered companies, condominiums and public bodies, with a nominal capacity higher than 1 kWp (output power achieved by a Solar module under full solar radiation). The decree provided a set of tariffs, valid for…read more

Biofuel (Decree no. 128/2005 and Ministerial Decree of 13-dec-17) ( 2005 )

This Decree established a national indicative target of 2.5% of substitution of traditional fuels with biofuels by 31 December 2010. From 1 January 2007 the quota for that date has been increased to 5.75%. The Ministerial Decree of 13 December 2017, the Ministry of Economic Development has reduced the minimum percentages for consumption requirement in…read more

White Certificate Trading for End-Use Energy Efficiency ( 2005 )

Two Decrees voted in 2004 require electricity and gas suppliers to help their customers save energy and engendered the 2005 White Certificates trading scheme. The two decrees repealed two previous decrees of 2001 about the identifi¬cation of quantitative national targets for energy savings and development of renewable sources. Energy – demand-side policies: In compliance with…read more

Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee for GHG emissions (CIPE resolution 123/2002) ( 2002 )

The resolution established an Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee for GHG emissions (CTE). The CTE is chaired by the Ministry of the Environment, Land and Sea and is constituted at the level of general directors and integrated with representatives of the Prime Minister’s office, along with representatives of the Ministries of Economy and Finance, Economic Development, Agricultural,…read more

Introduction of the Green Certificates System ( 2002 )

This legislation completes the introduction of a cap-and-trade mechanism to promote renewable energy sources. It introduces the green certificates that producers and importers can buy. Energy – demand-side policies: the 1999 Electricity Liberalisation Act and Decrees from the Ministries of Trade and Industry and of Environment (Legislative decree 79/99 of 16 March 1999 entitled; Ministry…read more

Utility targets for increasing energy efficiency/introduction of white certificates (Ministerial Decree) ( 2001 )

Ministerial decrees of 2000 and subsequent amendments establish national targets for increasing energy efficiency in end-uses of energy up to 2012 for electricity and gas distributors. Italian Distribution System Operators (DSO) of gas and electricity with more than 100,000 customers were obliged to achieve energy savings not lower than the target defined within the scheme.…read more

National Plan for Biofuels and Biomass (CIPE resolutions: 15/02/2000 ) ( 2000 )

The Biomass Fuels National Plan (PROBIO) aims to promote the deployment of biomass to replace fossil fuels through incentive systems. This is projected to affect mainly the agricultural, transportation and energy sectors. It represents the first operative tool of the two CIPE resolutions “National Programme for the Valorisation of Agricultural and Forestry Biomass (PNVBAF)” and…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

6.5% cut in GHG emissions by 2008-2012 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Inter-Mini... (2002 / Executive)

21% cut in GHG emissions by 2020 compared with a 2005 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): National E... (2013 / Executive)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

1% biofuel and renewable energy in total fuel by 2005, then 2.5% by 2010

Renewable Energy: Biofuels | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2010 | Base year: 2005, 2010 | Source(s): Biofuel (D... (2005 / Executive)

0.1 Mtoe reduction in primary energy consumption (50% from natural gas reduction) by 2005, then 0.2 by 2006, 0.4 by 2007, 1.0 by 2008, 1.4 2009 compared with a business as usual scenario

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2009 | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): White Cert... (2005 / Executive)

0.1 Mtoe reduction in primary energy consumption (50% from natural gas reduction) by 2002, then 0.5 by 2003, 0.9 by 2004, 1.2 by 2005, 1.6 by 2006 compared with a business as usual scenario

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2006 | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): Utility ta... (2001 / Executive)

3,000 MW total installed PV power by 2016

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2016 | Base year: 2016 | Source(s): New Feed-I... (2007 / Executive)

17% domestic consumption from renewables by 2020

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): Finance La... (2008 / Legislative)

Renewable energy is 19-20% final consumption by 2020

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National E... (2013 / Executive)

Primary energy consumption cut by 24% by 2020

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National E... (2013 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

40,000 ton reduction of polluting emissions

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: N/A | Base year: 2008 | Source(s): Finance La... (2008 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

No less than .2 KW solar energy capacity for new residential units by N/A compared with a business as usual scenario

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: N/A | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): Finance La... (2001 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Soon after Kyoto ratification, the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Economic Planning (CIPE) established guidelines for national policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions. These provisions were later confirmed by several pieces of legislation. Industry organisations, environmental NGOs and other groups concluded the Voluntary Climate Pact with the government (1999), under which they agreed to curb CO2 emissions. A fund for the reduction of atmospheric emissions and the promotion of energy efficiency and sustainable energy sources was established in 2000, financed from 3% of the receipts accruing from the carbon tax until 2002, when the carbon tax law ended.

In 2002, the Environment Ministry released the government’s strategy to cut GHG emissions. The plan relies on the Kyoto Protocol’s three flexible mechanisms of emissions trading and joint projects with other countries to deliver over half of the required emissions cuts. Several plans, including a reforestation plan, are the basis of this strategy. For the most part, they have yet to be implemented. The Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee for GHG emissions (CTE) was also established in 2002. In 2007 the CIPE adopted a further deliberation providing guidance to update the national strategy (Climate Change Action Plan). The latest CIPE deliberation was adopted in 2013 in order to enable Italy to contribute to achieving the Kyoto Protocol target and commitments set by the EU.

Energy Supply

The key energy policy document is the National Energy Strategy, adopted in 2013. It has a double time horizon (2020 and 2050) and aims to improve the competitiveness of the energy system and environmental sustainability. It aims to achieve four main targets by 2020: reducing energy costs by aligning prices with EU levels (national savings on electricity and gas estimated at approximately EUR9bn (USD11.3bn) per year); exceeding the European targets set out in the 2020 European Climate-Energy package (reducing GHG emissions by 21% compared with 2005, reducing primary energy consumption by 24% compared with the business as usual scenario, and achieving a 19-20% share of renewable energy in gross final consumption); improving security of supply, reducing dependency on energy imports by about EUR14bn (USD17.6bn) per year; boosting growth and employment by mobilising investments of EUR170bn – EUR180bn (USD213bn – USD225.9bn) by 2020, both in traditional sectors and in the green economy. A National Renewable Energy Action Plan was elaborated in 2009 in line with EU targets.

Since 2007, a feed-in tariff (FiT) has been offered to solar PV plants. The FiT is paid on the basis of the amount of energy produced and dispatched, and it is granted for a 20-year period. Rules governing the FiT are set out in the Conto Energia legislation, which is updated periodically by the legislature.

Since 2002, energy plants fuelled by other types of RES (wind, biomass, etc.) qualify for an incentive regime based on green certificates (GCs), which are issued by the GSE, traded between operators on a dedicated market, and surrendered to GSE at a fixed price. The GC scheme aims to increase the share of renewable energy in energy supply and reduce energy dependence. From 2016 the GC regime will be replaced by a dedicated FiT, calculated on the basis of the average price for the sale of electricity during the relevant year. To keep supporting plants already benefiting from incentives while ensuring long-term sustainability of the support system, further changes were introduced early in 2014 by the ‘Destinazione Italia Decree’, including lower guaranteed minimum prices and higher taxation for industrial renewable producers.

Energy demand

Energy demand policy was updated by the National Energy Strategy (NES, 2013), which lays down the key targets for energy demand management and aims to exceed targets in the 2020 European Climate-Energy package). The targets include: reducing primary energy consumption by 24% by 2020 compared with the business as usual scenario and reducing primary consumption by 17-26% by 2050 compared to 2010, by decoupling economic growth from energy consumption. Efforts in building and transport are identified as critical.

In accordance with EU rules, Italy has been elaborating National Energy Efficiency Action Plans since 2007. The latest version of the Plan was published in July 2014. The proposed measures in the residential, services, industry and transport sectors aim to achieve a primary energy saving target of 20.05% by 2020. Minimum energy efficiency standards have been introduced, principally following the requirements of the Ecodesign and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directives. Tax deductions for upgrading buildings were introduced by the Budget Law 2007 and have helped to generate savings in excess of 0.86 Mtoe/year, corresponding to more than 2 million tonnes/year of avoided CO2 emissions. A White Certificate energy efficiency obligation scheme was established in 2005 and has been expanded, most recently in 2014 to include telecommunications, water distribution, and transport. ‘Thermal account’, has been operational since 2013. This is the first nationwide direct incentive scheme for renewable thermal energy generation and the first direct scheme encouraging public authorities to implement energy efficiency actions in buildings and technical installations.

The Reorganisation of Energy Sector Regulation (2004) devolved power to regions to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources while maintaining the national scale of such promotion. The Budget Laws of 2007, 2008 and 2010 provide for fiscal incentives and financial measures to improve energy efficiency and abate emissions. These include the opportunity for municipalities to reduce real estate tax to buildings equipped with renewable energy installations (2008) and creation of a special fund to support the implementation of energy efficiency targets (2010).

Carbon pricing

Italy implemented the EU ETS in 2006. It has committed, with 12 other EU members, to return 50% of ETS revenues allocated to climate and energy efficiency programmes. Thus, the Budget Law 2007 established the “Revolving fund for Kyoto”. It provides EUR200m (USD251m) annually to finance measures to promote GHG emission reduc­tions through loans for energy efficiency (incl. buildings), distributed generation and small scale renewable generation.

Transportation

A number of national and regional incentives promote cleaner transportation and vehicles. In 2000, an Environment Ministry decree created incentives to encourage car-sharing. In 2004, the Ministry of Environment set up a programme that will reimburse city govern­ments up to 65% of the cost of adding environmentally friendly vehicles to each city’s fleet.

Policies on biofuels build on various regional incentives as well as the Biomass Fuels National Plan (2000, PROBIO), which aims to promote the deployment of biomass to replace fossil fuels through incentive systems. In 2005, a national indicative target was established of 2.5% of substitution of traditional fuels with biofuels by the end of 2010, increased to 5.75% in 2007. Today, Italy is Europe’s fourth-biggest producer of biodiesel, with a capacity of approximately 2.2mt per year.  It is set to mandate the use of advanced biofuels in cars and trucks. A Decree issued in October 2014 introduced an obligation for fuel suppliers to have at least 0.6% advanced biofuels (derived from substances such as algae, waste, or agricultural residues) in petrol and diesel from 1 January 2018, 0.8% from 1 January 2020 and 1% from 1 January 2022.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Italy participates in REDD+ by funding international projects directly or through the GEF, in countries such as Bolivia, Ecuador, China, Albania and Indonesia. The projects focus mainly on creating protected areas, managing forests to reduce wildfires or promoting sustainable agriculture.

Adaptation

The Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change is being finalised. The focus is on the integration of adaptation into different sectoral policies (so far the National plan for water use, 2005; National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013; White Paper of the Ministry for Agriculture on “Challenges and opportunities of the rural development in adapting and mitigating climate change”, 2011). Regional governments are responsible for the implementation of local adaptation action plans.

To date, Italy does not have any litigation listed.

Italy has a bicameral parliamentary system. The Lower House is the Chamber of Deputies and the Upper House is the Senate. The last parliamentary election was held in February 2013; the next is scheduled for 2018.

For a text to become law, it must receive the vote of both Houses independently. A bill is discussed in one of the Houses, amended, and approved or rejected. If approved, it is passed to the other House, which can amend it and approve or reject it. A law currently under scrutiny by the Parliament could differentiate the roles of the two Houses in the future.

Laws may be applied directly, or require the government to issue a regulation to indicate how they should be enforced, or how citizens should ask for what they are entitled to. Regulations can be updated more quickly than laws, which have to go through Parliament, but they cannot always be used. Some legal matters are reserved to laws, and most regulations have to be authorised by a specific law. A regulation may be: a Presidential Decree, a Decree from the President of the Council of Ministers, or a Ministerial Decree. The Presidential Decree is the most common and does not usually require prior authorisation by a law.

The Constitution reserves some matters to the regions and the laws of the Republic may delegate power to the regions to issue norms for enforcement.

Last modified 27 October, 2019