To date, Grenada does not have any climate change related laws.

Grenada Vision 2030 ( 2012 )

Further to the publication of the Grenada National Energy Policy (2011), the “Grenada Vision 2030” lays down the proposal to establish a 100% renewable energy target for both the electricity and transport sectors for 2030. As a first step to determining the pathway towards this objective, a ‘100% renewable energy showcase study is to be…read more

Grenada Disaster Vulnerability Reduction Project and Resettlement Policy Framework ( 2011 )

The Grenada Disaster Vulnerability Reduction Project, prepared in co-operation with the World Bank, aims to reduce Grenada’s vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change. It proposes a number of civil works in order to reduce the infrastructure vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change. The project is co-financed by the World Bank and the Climate…read more

Grenada Strategic Program for Climate Resilience ( 2011 / Adaptation Framework )

The Grenada Strategic (Investment) Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) is the key component of the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR), developed by the Ministry of Finance, Planning, Economy, Energy and Co-operatives in cooperation with and under financial assistance of the World Bank (the PPCR is housed within the Strategic Climate Funds established under the…read more

National Energy Policy ( 2011 )

Grenada’s National Energy Policy (GNEP) lays down the Government’s objectives for shaping the energy sector in Grenada, in order to “ensure access to affordable, equitable, and reliable energy sources and services to drive and secure national development, and to improve the quality of life for all of its citizens”. The GNEP is based on seven…read more

National Climate Change Policy and Action Plan (draft plan 2007-2011) ( 2007 / Mitigation Framework )

The strategic objective of the Plan is “to lay the foundation for an organised long term response to Climate Change”, in response to the relative lack of capacity to conduct climate change assessments and plan responses. The strategic objective is to be achieved through eight interdependent strategies, namely: • Climate-proofing present and future national development…read more

National Development Strategy for Grenada ( 2007 )

One of the main objectives of the National Development Strategy for Grenada developed by the Government in 2007 is to promote and provide for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. It specifies among the main threats climate change and lays down among others the specific objectives for “integrating environmental and physical development considerations into…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

30% reduction by 2025 and indicative 40% reduction by 2030 in GHG emissions compared to 2010

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2025 | Base year: 2010

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

-30% emissions in the electricity production

Energy: General

20% of all domestic energy usage (electricity and transport) will originate from renewable energy sources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National E... (2011 / Executive)

20% energy efficiency gains in the electricity production by 2025

Supply-Side Efficiency: Power Generation Efficiency Improvement | Target year: 2025

Reduce energy consumption (electricity and transport) by 10% by Q4, 2012, using 2009 as a base year by 2012 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2012 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): National E... (2011 / Executive)

10% electricity production from renewables by 2025

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2025

-20% emissions in buildings sector through retrofitting; -30% emissions in building sector through energy efficiency building codes; -20% emission in hotel sector

Demand-Side Efficiency: Buildings

2MW wind

Renewable Energy: Wind

15MW geothermal

Renewable Energy: Geothermal

10MW solar

Renewable Energy: Solar

10% electricity production from renewables by 2025

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2025

Source: NDC

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies

20% emissions reduction in buildings sector through retrofitting; 30% emissions reduction in building sector through energy efficiency building codes

Buildings

Source: NDC

10% of buildings with renewable energy technology by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: N/A | Source(s): National E... (2011 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies

20% emissions reduction in transport sector by 2025

Transport: General | Target year: 2025

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Grenada ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 (as a non-Annex I country). It submitted its first National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2000 and the preparation of a second communication has been in progress since 2006. Grenada is not bound by any international GHG emissions reduction targets, but has pledged a 20% reduction in GHG emissions from fossil fuels by 2020, as well as minimum of 20% share of renewable sources in primary energy production by 2020.

Grenada’s economy is primarily based on services and tourism, especially since the 2004 hurricane Ivan destroyed most of the nutmeg and other spices production capacity. The government’s overarching climate policy priority is adaptation to current and future climate change risks, such as rising sea levels, prolonged droughts and higher frequency of extreme events. Other priorities include the transition towards a low-carbon economy and energy security and independence.

The Ministry of Finance and Energy and the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Fisheries and Environment have the primary responsibility for climate change policy, which is in general connected to environment, energy security, and disaster prevention/adaptation policies. Climate change-related legislation is primarily based on executive policy, such as strategies, policy frameworks and strategy projects, without a single overarching legislation. Grenada has prepared a National Climate Change Policy and Action Plan (draft plan 2007-2011), whose strategic objective is “to lay the foundation for an organised long term response to climate change”, in response to the relative lack of capacity to conduct climate change assessments and plan responses. The strategic objective is to be achieved through eight interdependent strategies, including climate-proofing present and future national development activities; strengthening collection and analysis of climate change data; building local capacity to assess and respond to climate change; reducing GHG emissions through increased energy efficiency and use of renewable energy; eliminating unsustainable livelihood and development practices; raising public awareness and developing climate change-related education; and strengthening international co-operation on Joint Implementation projects. The Plan further sets out specific goals to be achieved over 2007–2011 and proposes a set of specific activities, including a request for detailed sector impact assessments and initial response plans, on which the 2015 update of the Action Plan (2012-2016) is to be based.

Energy supply

The energy sector is characterised by high dependence on fossil fuels, with the electricity sector accounting for 40%, and the transport sector for around 50% of the primary energy use. Grid access is over 99%, with installed generation capacity of around 50 MW and peak demand around 30 MW (2012). Grenada imports almost 94% of its fuel for transport (diesel and gasoline), electricity generation (diesel) and cooking (liquefied petroleum gas), which makes the country vulnerable to energy price volatility. Since Hurricane Ivan in 2004, power sector infrastructure has been severely impacted and infrastructure reliability and distribution concept put into question. On the other hand, Grenada has the potential to develop renewable energy sources, especially solar, wind, and biomass (e.g. sugarcane and nutmeg production wastes). Additionally, the geothermal potential was estimated at around 1,100MW, with about 50 MW that could be reliably produced from inland locations. Some small roof-top PV installations have already been developed, covering around 1% of the peak demand.

In 2011, the government adopted in 2011 the Grenada National Energy Policy (GNEP), which institutionalises Grenada’s transition to a low-carbon, secure, and energy independent economy. The GNEP is under the auspices of the Department of Energy & Sustainable Development, within the Ministry of Finance, Planning, Economy, Energy and Co-operatives. The GNEP lays down two main targets to be achieved by 2020: a minimum of 20% reduction of GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion below business-as-usual, and a share of a minimum of 20% renewable energy in all domestic energy used for electricity and transport. The GNEP also includes the Energy Development Strategy (2010-2020), which provides for adoption of energy specific legislation such as a Geothermal Bill and the revision of the 1994 Electricity Supply Act. The latter is to be replaced in early 2015, as the government intends to enact legislation for a new Electricity Supply Act that will promote renewables among households, hotels and other businesses. There will be a strong focus on communities’ access to renewables such as solar PV, which should among others help lower the high costs of energy, market opening for independent power producers and purchase obligation by the central utility operator

The Grenada Vision 2030 (2012) sets out an ambitious target of 100% share of renewable energy in electricity generation and transport by 2030 and calls for further studies of how such a target could best be achieved, starting with a showcase study to be conducted in co-operation with the German government and relevant companies.

Grenada benefits from a number of international financial assistance programmes, such as the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Grenada, along with other Caribbean Community and Common Market members, secured funding through the GEF for the Energy for Sustainable Development in Caribbean Buildings project. Grenada has also drawn funds from the EU Energy Facility and secured external grants for exploration of geothermal resources and the Carriacou wind energy project.

Energy demand

Grenada’s energy demand is expected to almost double by 2030 (IRENA 2012). This is why, besides provisions for transition to alternative sources of energy, the Grenada National Energy Policy also lays down measures to encourage energy efficiency and conservation, although it does not provide specific targets. It further calls for adoption of an Energy Efficiency Act, which should include provisions for energy efficiency standards (appliances, transport, buildings), regular energy audits and financial incentives to be offered by commercial banks for investments in energy efficiency.

The government provides a tax incentive (exemption of the 15% VAT) for investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. The Ministry of Finance has also published a list of energy efficient equipment, including energy saving bulbs and renewable energy technologies, which are also exempt from VAT. A draft version of Grenada’s building code (2001) offers a framework for sustainable use of buildings. It also aims at improving standards of building construction, taking into account among others the recommendations of the Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project of the Organization of American States. However, the code has not yet been officially adopted.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Although Grenada does not have an overarching land use and management legislation, projects recognising the importance of climate change and potential climate regulative function of land use are developed in co-operation with the UNCCD (includes preparation of the National Action Programme to Elaborate the UNCCD). The recently-revised National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP, 5th report submitted in September 2014), also considers land use impacts on climate change. It incorporates the updated Aichi Biodiversity Targets, of which the following targets directly refer to climate change: Target 5 (reduce forest degradation by 50-100% by 2020); Target 10 (reduce anthropogenic pressures on vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change by 2015 to safeguard their function); and Target 15 (restore at least 15% of degraded ecosystems to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation by 2020).

Transportation

The transport sector represents around 50% of the primary energy/fossil fuel use. Although there is currently no specific policy to encourage the use of alternative fuels for the transport sector, the Grenada National Energy Policy (2011) proposes to introduce electric vehicles into the market, with the electricity grid supplied by renewable energy such as geothermal. The government, in collaboration with Grenada Electricity Services, is preparing a pilot electric vehicle programme for large vehicle fleets.

Adaptation

Grenada is especially vulnerable to climate change impacts, such as rising sea levels and increased temperatures. In response, it has developed a set of strategic adaptation programmes and projects: Grenada Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience, Grenada Disaster Vulnerability Reduction Project and Resettlement Policy Framework. Most of these documents have been prepared in co-operation with external actors providing financial means or technical support, in particular the World Bank, UNDP, UNCCD, and the German government. The adaptation measures range from coastal zones rehabilitation, and flood and landslides mitigation, to potential resettlement of inhabitants of zones at risk. In November 2014, Grenada completed its UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) country profile, which provides a comprehensive overview of the state of disaster risk reduction, including climate change resilience.

The integration and mainstreaming of adaptation measures into national planning takes place under the Grenada Integrated Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Project (ICCAS – funded by the German government’s International Climate Initiative). The project aims at raising awareness about climate change adaptation and aims at shifting public behaviour towards more sustainable habits. Initiatives developed under the ICCAS project include drafting of a Coastal Zone Policy and Coastal Zone Management Roadmap. The ICCAS Project has also adapted for Grenada the ‘Caribbean Climate Online Risk and Adaptation Tool’, which allows public and private sector entrepreneurs to estimate whether climate change will have a negative impact on their proposed activities, projects or policies. Finally, a National Adaptation Plan is to be prepared under the ICCAS Project in 2015.

To date, Grenada does not have any litigation listed.

Grenada is a small island state with a parliamentary democracy, which gained independence from the UK in 1974. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, with the British Monarch as head of the executive and part of the legislature, represented by the Governor General. The Prime Minister is head of Government and the legislature, which consists of the bicameral Parliament (Senate – 13 seats, 10 members appointed by the Government; House of Representatives – 15 seats, elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies for a five-year term). The Supreme Court of Grenada is the highest judicial body. The most recent elections were held on 2013 and the next are planned for 2018. 

Legislative initiative power belongs to the Governor General representing the British Monarch and members of both parliamentary Chambers, except for legislative proposals concerning public finances and taxation, which are initiated by the government and must be first submitted before the House of Representatives. Under the ordinary procedure (non-finance legislation), bills are adopted by both Chambers, with the House of Representatives able to overturn a Senate rejection of a bill. Bills must be adopted by both Houses and receive Royal Assent from the Governor General before they can be published in the Official Gazette and become law.

Last modified 22 August, 2017