This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Act 478/2017 on the distribution of alternative fuels for transport ( 2017 )

The purpose of this Act is to ensure that alternative fuels for public charging and refueling points are in conformity with common technical specifications and that users are provided with sufficient information on alternative fuels and their distribution. The Act notably focuses on charging points for electric vehicles and alternative fuels that aim at reducing…read more

Climate Change Act ( 2015 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The Climate Change Act intends to create a bottom up, long-term, consistent and cost-effective climate policy through enabling political decision making and its transparent implementation (Mitigation and Adaptation). To build a low carbon society, the act proposes to reduce Finland’s emissions by 80% of the 1990 levels by 2050. The law exempts EU ETS from…read more

Act 490/2013 on wind power compensation areas ( 2013 )

The Act on Wind Power Compensation Areas prescribes for wind power compensation areas, the construction of wind power plants and the charges payable to the State on wind power plans located within these areas. Currently, the legislation has defined the Bothnian Bay wind power areas as the compensation area. The document specifies that the Energy…read more

Act on the Supervision of the electricity and gas market (590/2013) ( 2013 )

The act establishes an institutional system and legal context in supervising and controlling the energy market through the Energy Market Authority. It aims to supervise and control the electricity and gas market to promote efficient, safe and environmentally sustainable activities at the national and regional levels as well as to influence the European Union's internal…read more

Act on State guarantees and export guarantees granted to industry for investments promoting environmental protection (609/1973) ( 2011 )

The act (amending many existing acts) proposes to provide state guarantees (not exceeding EUR100m, USD125m) for investments and credit for Finnish industries (regardless of size of the company size) that carry out investments (inside Finland or abroad) on environmental protection that include renewable energy products, energy recover and energy efficiency projects. The criteria specifies appropriateness,…read more

Act 1396/2010 on Production Subsidy for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources (1396/2010) and accompanying Decree 1397/2010 ( 2010 )

This Act aims at promoting the production of electricity from renewable sources of energy, increasing the competitiveness of such sources of energy, diversifying electricity production and improving Finland's self-sufficiency in the production of electricity. The document contains provisions on production subsidy to be paid from State funds for electricity produced from wind power, biogas and…read more

Act on Aviation Emissions Trading (34/2010) ( 2010 )

The act aims to promote the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the aviation sector in a cost-effective and economical way. The act stipulates that aircraft operators should monitor their emissions and submit a report to the transport safety authority regularly during the emissions trading periods. It stipulates emission allowances and that 3% of total…read more

Flood Risk Management Act (No. 620/2010) ( 2010 )

This Act forms part of the adaptation strategy and concerns the organisation of flood risk management. The purpose of the Act is to reduce flood risks, prevent and mitigate the adverse consequences caused by floods and promote the preparedness for floods. The purpose of the Act is also to co-ordinate flood risk management and other…read more

Act on Verification and Notification of Origin of Electricity (1129/2003) ( 2004 )

The act provides procedures by which a power point operator can verify and an electricity vendor’s minimum obligations to notify the origin of the electricity. Among its wide ranging provisions, the act requires an electricity vendor to inform through electricity bills or promotions materials the proportion of energy sources and details of CO2 emissions and…read more

Land use and Building Decree enacted under the Land use and Building Act (132/1999) ( 1999 )

Among its wide ranging provisions, the act also aims to empower the authority of the municipal and regional councils to regulate buildings, developments and plans in their jurisdiction to be environment friendly and energy efficient along with other wide ranging criteria.…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

National Energy and Climate Strategy for 2030 ( 2016 / Mitigation Framework )

The National Energy and Climate Strategy lays out concrete actions and objectives on how Finland is to achieve the energy and climate objective consistent with 2050 carbon neutrality target. It notably updates previous goals on renewable energy: 1) the share of renewable energy into final energy demand should rise to over 50 % in the…read more

National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022 ( 2015 / Adaptation Framework )

From the Plan: The aim of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022 is that the Finnish society has the capacity to manage the risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate. The objectives of the plan are: A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

80-95% cut in GHG emissions by 2050 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

39% emissions reduction by 2030 compared with a 2016 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2016 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

80% GHG emission reduction by 2050 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Climate Ch... (2015 / Legislative)

16% non-ETS emissions cut by 2020 compared with a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Phasing out coal in energy production by 2030 against a 2018 baseline

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2018 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

Over 50% renewable energy of end consumption by 2030 against a 2018 baseline

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2018 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

38% renewable energy in final consumption by 2020

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

27% energy efficiency improvement by 2030 against a 2016 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2016 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

97% historical aviation emissions cap, then 95% of previous year each year following by 2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Act on Avi... (2010 / Legislative)

40% renewable fuels in transport mix (23.5% of fuel energy content) by 2030

Renewable Energy | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2018 | Source(s): National E... (2016 / Executive)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Finland signed the UNFCCC in 1992 and respective legislation was adopted in 1994. It ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and it came into force in 2005. EU-wide legislative arrangements (e.g. burden sharing agreement, the ETS, the climate and energy package and monitoring mechanisms) are being implemented. In 2014, Finland submitted its sixth national communication to the UNFCCC.

The Ministry of Environment acts as the national focal point for the UNFCCC and for administration of climate change-related negotiations, participation and policy implementation by co-ordinating the operations of other Ministries (Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture, Transport, Energy, Foreign Affairs, Employment etc.), industry organisations, research institutes, labour unions and so on. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs authorises and approves CDM projects. ‘Statistics Finland’ is responsible for compiling and monitoring the GHG inventory and the Energy Market Authority is the registry administrator for the ETS. A National Climate Panel was established in 2011, bringing together experts from natural sciences, economics and other social sciences, engineering and international politics to support political decision-making. Municipal authorities have competence in land use and transport planning and in taking measures to reduce emissions from their own energy consumption while delivering services.

A joint ministerial working group was set up in 2003 to co-ordinate the government’s long-term climate and energy strategy; a new ministerial working group replaced it in 2008 to update the strategy. This updated strategy was released in 2013. The prime minister’s office in 2009 released the “Government Foresight Report on Long term Climate and Energy Policy: Towards a low carbon Finland”. The Parliamentary Committee’s report – Energy and Climate Roadmap 2050 – was published in October 2014. In June 2014 the government adopted proposal for a flagship National Climate Change Act, and in early 2015 the law was passed in Parliament[1] – committing to an 80% emissions reduction by 2050 compared with a 1990 baseline, and allowing an increase in the target based on latest climate science. The law creates a legal framework for bottom-up, long-term, consistent and cost-effective climate policy planning and implementation of a low-carbon society. The plans under the law address transport, agriculture and housing and exempt sectors covered by the EU ETS directive (electricity production, energy-intensive industry, a large share of district heat production and aviation).

The government foresight report further proposes to cut the energy intensity of the economy by at least 50% by 2050 through “radical improvement of energy efficiency”, to source at least 60% of energy from renewable sources and to gradually “phase out the use of fossil fuels in energy production” by 2050. In some sectors, for example in transport, Finland’s target for the use of renewable energy is double (20%) the EU’s. Approximately half of emissions are covered by the EU ETS framework. Even though the main instrument for reducing emissions is the EU ETS, Finland also uses the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, the joint implementation and the CDM to increase the cost-efficiency of climate policies. As a result of the domestic targets and measures, Finland will reach its targets under EU’s legislation for 2020. The plan for adaptation stipulates a risk and vulnerability review and to be approved once every 10 years. The Act also provides for the constitution of a multidisciplinary expert body to support planning of climate policy.

Through the Kyoto Protocol and other channels, Finland implements its Bonn declaration commitment to provide additional climate change funding to developing and least developed countries. This contribution in 2008 amounted to EUR255m (USD320m) in addition to the sector specific co-operation programmes in energy, forestry and technology. Through ‘Finnpartnership Innovative’, Finland promotes business-to-business partnership in environmentally-sound technologies.

Climate change has become one of the main priority areas for research funding through the Ministry of Education. The Academy of Finland co-ordinates many research programmes on the science and natural and socio-economic impacts of climate change, as well as on adaptation and innovative technology. Public-private partnership initiatives (for example CLEEN Ltd, co-ordinated by the strategic Centre for Science Technology and Innovation group of the Finnish Energy and Environment Cluster) focus on research into topics such as carbon-neutral energy production, energy systems, sustainable fuels, energy efficient technology and recycling.

Energy supply

Even though Finland uses a range of energy sources, (In 2012 the mix was electricity imports (5%), Hydro power (5%), peat (5%) Natural Gas (8%) Coal (9%), Nuclear (18%), Oil (24%), Wood fuels (24%) others (3%)), about 70% of the total energy used is imported (oil, gas and coal). In the past two decades, energy supply has shifted from coal and oil towards wood-based fuels, peat, natural gas and nuclear energy. To achieve self-sufficiency in energy supply and to have a control on its emissions, an expansion in nuclear power capacity is planned.

Energy policy emphasises energy security at competitive prices as well as low environmental impacts. The 5th UNFCCC communication claims that, though electricity markets and GHG emissions fluctuate in response to procurement conditions influenced by the hydrological conditions in the Nordic countries, on the whole economic instruments and deregulation of the market have led to a reduction in emissions. It further notes that the voluntary scheme has proved an efficient measure next to taxation and subsidies – with total effect estimated to exceed 4m tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2010.

In 2010 Finland adopted a national renewable energy action plan to use a higher proportion of forest-based biomass. The national target for use of energy from renewable sources is 38% by 2020. Finland aims to create large-scale wind farms – EUR20m (USD25.1m) was allocated in 2012 to build an offshore wind farm demonstration project by 2015.

Energy demand

The economy is energy-intensive and has relatively high per-capita emissions due to industrial needs and domestic consumption. In 2013, even though the use of hard coal increased, the use of peat, oil and natural gas declined, resulting in total emissions remaining unchanged compared to the 2012 level at 60m tonnes of CO2-e. In 2013, total emissions outside the EU ETS were 6% below the target set by the EU.

Rather than direct governmental intervention to guide the choice of energy sources, Finland uses a range of economic instruments, i.e., taxation, subsidies and voluntary agreements (industry and municipal agencies) to promote energy efficiency. An energy efficiency committee was set up in 2008 and identified 127 energy-saving measures, mainly in the housing, construction and transport sectors. Measures included new vehicle technology, renewing the existing car stock, introduction of electric cars, reducing consumption for new buildings and making household appliances more efficient.

The Ministry of Employment and Economy is co-ordinating the preparation of a national energy efficiency act (the bill of which is currently being debated in the Parliament), to implement the EU Energy Efficiency Directive. The act also aims to influence domestic energy use by making clean technology and green energy obligatory in public procurement. Through the clean energy programme, the government aims to promote investment in the domestic production of clean energy such as biofuels in order to replace imports and meet the EU 2050 target as early as 2025. There are measures to promote new motor technology for low emission cars, replacing 10% of natural gas with biomass-based solutions and cutting the use of mineral oil in road transport and oil-based heating by 20%.

Finland adopted a regulation in 2008 to implement the EU Directive on the Energy Performance in Buildings. Measures include an act on energy certification of buildings, a Ministry of Environment decree on energy certification of buildings, an act on energy efficiency inspections of air conditioning systems in buildings, amendments to the land use and building act, which was expanded to cover energy efficiency requirements and details of how energy efficacy should be calculated. Subsidies were introduced to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, such as supporting renovation and introduction of low-carbon heating systems.

Carbon pricing

Finland introduced a carbon tax of EUR1.12 (USD1.41) per tonne of CO2 in 1990, based on the carbon content of the fossil fuel, becoming the first country to use a carbon tax as an instrument for climate change mitigation. Peat and natural gas were granted exemptions and the wood industry was exempt from the tax to maintain international comparative advantage in export markets. Fuels used as raw material or inputs for manufacturing were also exempt, leading many to argue that the measures were of limited value. However, through successive reforms (1997, 2007 and 2011), Finland increased the rates and combined the carbon tax and the energy tax. In 2013, the tax had evolved into a combined tax of carbon and energy at EUR18.05 (USD22.65) per tonne of CO2 and EUR66.2 (USD83.1) per tonne of carbon.

 REDD+ and LULUCF

The LULUCF sector acts as a net carbon sink. Forest policy aims at sustainable forest management through measures such as legislation, the National Forest Programme 2015 (NFP 2015), financial support and extensive public forestry organisations. NFP 2015 links the climate change and energy strategy with forest management to increase energy procurement and climate benefits from forests. It intends to maintain the sink at a level of at least 10-20m tonnes of CO2e up to 2015. Measures include improved forest management practices, a permanent bio-energy advisory service, training for forestry professionals, management techniques to improve vitality, impact as carbon sinks and measures promoting sustainable harvesting, stimulate increased sequestration of forest carbon, wood energy production through subsidies etc. The measures rely on labelling economic incentives and research promotion more than regulation and legislation. In 2006, the government elected forest management activity as part of its commitments under the Kyoto protocol during the first commitment period to compensate for net emissions 3 and to receive a total of 2.95m tonnes worth of RMU units (0.59m tonnes/year).

The national climate and energy strategy envisions minimising GHG emissions by adopting a more dense and compact urban structure and regional land use distribution to reduce urban sprawl. There are also proposals to encourage cycling and walking, reduce transportation and promote use of more energy efficient heating systems, all of which is viable in a dense urban structure.

The 5th National Communication to UNFCCC claims that changes in agricultural policies and farming subsidies led to reduced reliance on cultivation in organic soils, fewer livestock and less nitrogen fertiliser use cut annual CH4 and N2O emissions from agriculture by 22% since 1990. New agricultural policies aim to reduce GHG emissions and energy use by promoting environmentally friendly manure, energy crops and emission reductions from organic soils and animal husbandry. A government decree restricts discharge of nitrates from agriculture into waters to deal with N2O. Changes in this sector rely on measures based on better information, economic incentives and promotion of research rather than legislation.

Transportation

Finland has adopted measures to reduce emissions from the transport sector at least by 15% by 2020. Based on the EU climate and energy package, Finland must increase the share of renewable energy sources in transport energy consumption at least by 10% by 2020, with biofuels in petrol and diesel to make up 5.75% of consumption by 2010. In addition Finland has a national target for a 20% share of biofuel use in the transport sector by 2020. Measures under implementation include voluntary agreements in goods, logistics and public transport to improve efficiency by 9% by 2016, regulations to improve CO2 performance standards for new cars, taxing vehicles according to emissions, a vehicle energy labelling scheme, regulation to increase non-motorised transport by 20%, fuel taxation and road user charges.

Adaptation

Due to climate change, temperature increase is expected to be about 1.5 times higher than the global average temperature rise, leading to a substantial increase in precipitation, and to a decrease in ground frost, ice cover and snow seasons. These are expected to contribute to longer periods of weak soil stability, risk of soil erosion, higher winter runoff and reduction in spring floods. It is anticipated that the forest and agricultural sector could gain from climate change and that demand for heating will fall. The tourism sector is anticipated to benefit from warmer summers but energy-intensive industries are expected to face higher costs of production and the subsequent risk of unemployment. The Ministry of Agriculture published the National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change in 2005 and is preparing its revision in the form of a National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change to 2022 (expected in 2015).

The plan for adaptation under the new Climate Change Act stipulates a risk and vulnerability review to be approved once every 10 years.

A co-ordination group has been set up to monitor the implementation of the adaptation strategy with specific measures in water, fisheries, agriculture and forestry. The Ministry of Environment launched in 2008 the environmental administrations action plan on climate change adaptation, defining adaptation measures in biodiversity, land use and construction, environmental protection and water resources and in land use planning with respect to flood risks.

Many measures are information-based (labelling), administrative, economic and technical related to biodiversity, land use conservation, peat lands and forests. Most of the measures are related to administrative co-ordination, research and information, technical innovation and support such as guidance on storm water, a working group to investigate the responsibilities of authorities involved in flood risk management and flood prevention, a programme for plant and animal health monitoring, research projects on new technologies and cultivation methods, survey of temporary flood prevention structures, revising the insurance regimes, monitoring and warning systems for transport etc.

[1] The National Climate Change Act is not included in the detailed Legislative Portfolio for Finland, as it was passed in March 2015, and this Study’s scope is limited to legislation passed up to  January 1st 2015.

To date, Finland does not have any litigation listed.

Finland is a parliamentary democracy where executive power is exercised by the president and the council of state (the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister) which must enjoy the confidence of the Parliament. The President of the Republic is elected for a six-year term. The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the parliament and appointed by the President. Independent courts, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court exercise judicial powers.

The Parliament is unicameral and consists of two hundred Members of Parliament (MPs). MPs are elected in direct, proportional and secret ballot for a term of four years. The last general election was held in April 2015. The next is expected to take place in 2019. Parliament enacts all legislation, approves the state budget, ratifies international treaties and oversees the Government. Legislation is enacted according to the Constitution and the procedure of the Parliament.

Government bills or Members’ initiatives begin with a preliminary debate in the plenary session, after which the bill is submitted to a committee. Following the committee process, a bill returns to the plenary session where it is dealt with in two readings. In the first reading the content of the bill is decided section by section. In the second reading the bill is either approved or rejected. Once the President ratifies it, an Act is published in the Statutes of Finland.

Last modified 22 August, 2017