This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

Climate Change Mitigation Act ( 2014 / Mitigation Framework )

In pursuance of its international commitments and in order to synchronise Bulgarian legislation with the European law, the Climate Change Mitigation Act outlines the overall policy to be followed in order to mitigate climate change and its impacts and fulfil international obligations within the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, as well as the EU legal framework.…read more

Energy from Renewable Sources Act ( 2011 )

The Energy from Renewable Sources Act replaces the Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources and Biofuels Act (2008), which was the first national legislation entirely dedicated to the renewable energy sources, mainly introducing the requirements of the related EU directives. The 2008 Act established support mechanisms that provided for “equal preferential treatment for producers of electricity…read more

Forestry Act and National Strategy for the Development of the Forest Sector 2013-2020 ( 2011 )

""The Act sets up a basic framework for the conservation of forests and (consequently) the support of the functions of ‘forest areas’, which include “climate regulation and carbon absorption”. Especially relevant for forest restoration and indirectly for CO2 absorption is the chapter on “Afforestation and protection of forest areas against erosion and floods”. The Act…read more

Energy Efficiency Act (repeals the Law on Energy Efficiency 2004) ( 2008 )

This Act, implementing EU energy efficiency directives, lays down the foundations of the energy efficiency policy. It aims to promote energy efficiency through a system of measures for enhancing security of energy supply, competition in the energy sector and environment protection. It also mandates the Council of Ministers to submit the National Energy Efficiency Strategy…read more

Clean Ambient Air Act ( 2006 )

The Clean Ambient Air Act regulates the limitation of emissions into the air from stationary sources and the quality requirements for liquid fuels – among others the activities directly related to GHG emissions. In addition, since 2008, Article 25 on Common methodology for emissions inventory specifically includes CO2, CH4 and N2O (plus relevant ODS and…read more

Energy Act and the National Energy Strategy until 2020 ( 2003 )

One of the aims of the Energy Act is to create conditions for the “promotion of the combined generation of electricity and heat” (art. 2). In its part on combined heat and power generation introduces the requirements of the related EU directives and the use of instruments such as green certificates and preferential feed in…read more

Spatial Planning Act ( 2001 )

Spatial Planning Act regulates the procedures for preparation, approval and amendment of general and detailed spatial development plans of settlements. The bylaws issued on the basis of the Spatial Planning Act lay down the standards of urban planning and development of land. Based on the Spatial Planning Act was developed the National Concept for Spatial…read more

Agricultural Land Protection Act ( 1996 )

The Agricultural Land Protection Act allows land use change of agricultural land only in certain specific cases. The owners and the users of agricultural land are entitled to tax and credit preferences when implementing the mandatory limitation on agricultural land use as well as when implementing projects to restore and improve the fertility of agricultural…read more

This country is a member of the European Union, so data from the NDC submitted by the EU on behalf of its members is being displayed. For further information about the EU's NDC, legislation, and targets, please see the EU profile.

National Strategy for Development of the Forestry Sector in the Republic of Bulgaria for the period 2013 – 2020 ( 2013 )

The National Strategy for 2013-2020 includes the contribution of the forest sector to climate mitigation as part of the strategic vision for 2013-2020. It further lays down three strategic objectives for the medium term: 1. Ensure sustainable development of the forestry sector by achieving an optimal balance between environmental functions and provision of long-term economic…read more

Early-warning system in case of disasters (Ordinance 26/2009 of the Council of Ministers) ( 2009 )

The Ordinance provides for the National early- warning disaster system to: 1. Foster continuous relationship for exchanging information and action coordination within the executive power and a component of the rescue system as defined in the Law on Disaster Protection in the event of imminent or occurring disaster; 2. Warn and inform the public of…read more

Programme for accelerated gasification of Republic of Bulgaria until 2020 ( 2009 )

The Programme aims to improve the energy efficiency in the household heating sector. Currently, only 1.5% of households are connected to the natural gas grid. The Government aims to increase this percentage to 30% in 2020 and replace the electricity used for heating by highly efficient natural gas appliances. The Programme sets the target of…read more

This country is a member of the EU and so EU NDC data is being displayed.

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

The European Union and its 28 Member States submitted a joint NDC: at least 40% domestic reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990

Source: NDC

10% reduction in emissions from non-ETS plants, 21% reduction from ETS plants by 2020 compared with 2005

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Energy Act... (2003 / Legislative)

Reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 by 2030 against a 2005 baseline (collective EU target)

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

At least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

Reducing by 2050 GHG emissions by 80–95 % by 2050 against a 1990 baseline

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2050 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): Decision N... (2013 / Legislative)

Maximum quantity of hydrofluorocarbons to be placed on the market and corresponding quotas by 2015, 2030

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fluorinate... (2014 / Legislative)

In 2020, the target is for the emissions from the ETS sectors to be 21% lower than in 2005

Economy Wide | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Reduction of EU GHG emissions by at least 30% below 1990 levels by 2020

Economy Wide | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Source(s):

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

35% reduction in GHG (from Biofuel/biomass use) in the short term, then by 50% in 2017, and by 60% in 2018 compared with a business as usual scenario

Biofuels | Base Year Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: Business as usual scenario | Source(s): Programme ... (2009 / Executive), Energy Act... (2003 / Legislative)

16% final energy consumption from renewables by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): Programme ... (2009 / Executive), Energy Act... (2003 / Legislative)

16% share of renewable energy in the gross final consumption of the country after 2020.

Renewable Energy: Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2013 | Source(s): National S... (2013 / Executive)

50% reduction energy intensity of GDP (456 tonnes/year) by 2020 against a 2005 baseline

Energy Intensity | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2005 | Source(s): Programme ... (2009 / Executive), Energy Act... (2003 / Legislative)

20% of EU energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

An indicative target at the EU level of at least 27% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria by 2030 against a 2014 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): 2030 frame... (2014 / Executive)

On 30 November 2016 the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Efficiency Directive, including a new 30% energy efficiency target for 2030 by 2030 against a 1990 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 1990 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Energy distributors or retail energy sales companies have to achieve 1.5% energy savings per year through the implementation of energy efficiency measures by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, by improving energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Obligated energy distributors and/or retail energy sales companies achieve a cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020 at least equivalent 1.5% a year from 2014 to 2020 of the annual energy sales to final customers of all energy distributors or all retail energy sales companies by volume, averaged over the most recent 3-year period prior to 2013 by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency by 2020 against a 2012 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2012 | Source(s): Energy Eff... (2012 / Legislative)

The biofuels and bio-liquids should contribute to a reduction of at least 35% of GHG emissions. From 2017, their share in emissions savings should be increased to 50% by 2020

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Biofuel GHG emissions must be >35% lower than the fossil fuel they are replacing by 2017, 2018 against a 2015 baseline

Biofuels | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2018 | Base year: 2015 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Manufacturer's average emissions to be reduced yearly by 2014-2020 against a 2011 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Increasing aircraft fuel efficiency, thus reducing CO2 emissions by 20 to 30 % compared to ‘state-of-the-art’ aircraft entering into service as from 2014 by 2020

General | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2014 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% and NOx by 80% by 2020 against a 2007 baseline

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2007 | Source(s): Clean Sky ... (2007 / Legislative)

Reducing the GHG intensity of fuels used in vehicles for transportation by 10% by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

General | Intensity Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Fuel Quali... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, in accordance with Article 13(5) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): Emission p... (2009 / Legislative)

At least 10% share of renewables in final energy consumption in the transportation sector by 2020

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

Average emissions of 147 gCO2/km for the average emissions of new light commercial vehicles registered in the Union subject to confirmation of its feasibility, as specified in Article 13(1) by 2020

General | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

The specific emissions of CO2 of each light commercial vehicle which is designed to be capable of running on a mixture of petrol with 85% bioethanol (‘E85’), and which complies with relevant Union legislation or European technical standards, shall be reduced by 5% by 2015

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2015 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Emission p... (2011 / Legislative)

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

30% households gasified by 2020

Fuels | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2020 | Source(s): Programme ... (2009 / Executive), Energy Act... (2003 / Legislative)

Every year, governments in EU countries must carry out energy efficient renovations on at least 3% (by floor area) of the buildings they own and occupy by 2020 against a 2009 baseline

Energy Efficiency | Base Year Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2009 | Source(s): 2020 Clima... (2009 / Legislative)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Increase forest area by afforestation of abandoned agricultural land, bare and deforested areas, eroded and endangered by erosion. Indicator: 1.4
31.12.2011 total area 4 148 114 ha, wooded area: 3 774 778 ha 31.12.2010 Total stock: 644 840 247 m3 Total stock: 202 million tons by 2020

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2013 | Source(s): National S... (2013 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Bulgaria ratified the UNFCCC in 1995 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002. It submitted its first National Communication to the UNFCCC in 1996, followed by communications in 2001, 2002, 2006, 2010 (resubmitted in response to declaration of non-compliance with the Kyoto Protocol in 2010) and 2013. The next communication to the UNFCCC is currently being prepared. Bulgaria, a country in transition, adopted 1988 as the base year for the implementation of the Protocol. For the second commitment period (2012-2020), it has committed to the joint EU “20-20-20” targets of the “climate and energy package”. Following the upwards revision of targets by the Third National Action Plan on Climate Change for the period 2013-2020, Bulgaria has committed to reduce its GHG emissions by at least 18.5% by 2020 (base year 2005), limit the growth in ‘non-ETS’ emissions to below 20% (base year 2005), source 20% of its gross final energy production and 16% of its gross final consumption from renewables by 2020, source 10% of final energy consumption in the transport sector from renewables, and increase energy efficiency by 25% by 2020 (base year 2005).

Bulgaria has met its international commitments for emissions reductions to date. From 1988 to 2011, emissions decreased by 45.8% (46.4% with LULUCF), exceeding the reductions target for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (8%, 2008-2012). The Government places climate change among its main priorities, although economic development remains the key priority as a country in transition. More than one-fifth of the labour force is employed on a minimum wage of EUR1 (USD1.25) per hour, with household income often dependent on the informal economy (almost 32% of GDP). This is why the majority of legislation related to climate change mitigation and adaptation does not go beyond implementation of EU legislation.

The Ministry of Environment and Water (MEOW) is responsible for the design and implementation of climate change policy and the Executive Environment Agency for the co-ordination of the National GHG Inventory. The Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change (set up in 2000) and the Inter-ministerial Working Group for Development of the National Allocation Plan (set up in 2005) co-ordinate climate measures in key sectoral policies such as energy, households and services, industry, transport, agriculture, forestry and waste management. The following organisations support the climate change activities of the MOEW: Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Energy, Sustainable Energy Development Agency, Joint Implementation Steering Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the National Statistical Institute, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and a number of lower-level government offices.

The Climate Change Mitigation Act (2014) represents the key climate change mitigation legislation. It lays down the principles of the state policy in the climate sector, the procedures for issuing GHG emissions permits, the responsibilities for organising national inventories, the rules for operation of the emissions trading mechanism and procedures for financing green projects. Specific national targets concerning the Climate-Energy Package are contained in strategic documents, including Europe 2020: National Reform Programme (2014 update); National Development Programme: “Bulgaria 2020”; National Environmental Strategy 2009-2018; Third National Climate Change Action Plan 2013-2020; Energy Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria until 2020; National Energy Efficiency Programme until 2015; National Long-term Programme for the Promotion of the Use of Renewable Energy Sources 2005-2015; National Programme for Promotion of the Biofuels Use in the Transport Sector 2008-2020; and National Strategy for Development of the Forestry Sector 2006-2015.

The principal objectives of climate-related policy are the development of a highly efficient and green energy sector and establishment of a single internal energy market, while overcoming high energy and carbon intensity of the economy and dependency on energy imports. Climate change mitigation measures are mainly financed from the state budget, the Enterprise for Managing Activities on Environmental Protection, the National Trust Eco Fund and the National Science fund. Other contributions come from EU Environmental Funds, Kyoto Protocol Joint Implementation Mechanism and Green Investment Scheme, and other international and bilateral agreements.

At the local level, municipalities are responsible for efficient production, supply and use of energy (e.g. energy savings through buildings renovation, energy efficient street lighting) and are mandated by the Energy Efficiency Act to prepare municipal energy efficiency plans. Although not leading directly to measurable reductions in emissions, the National Strategy for R&D Development 2020 (2009) defines energy, energy efficiency, and development of green and eco-technologies as the top scientific research priority. According to the 6th National Communication to the UNFCCC, BGN90m (USD57.8m) is to be dedicated for their implementation.

Energy supply

The energy sector has the largest share in the national GHG emissions. The primary energy generation mix is dominated by coal (52.1%), followed by nuclear (34.4%), renewables 10.3% (fuels and waste 7.1%, electricity generation 2.8%, heat energy 0.4%), natural gas (2.9%), and oil (0.2%) (2011). However, domestic energy production does not match energy demand, of which more than 70% has to be met by imports, mostly from Russia.

The Ministries of Economy and of Energy are responsible for co-ordination of energy policy, assisted by the Sustainable Energy Development Agency (SEDA), the State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission, the Agency for Nuclear Regulation and the Ministry of Environment and Water. The policies and measures in the energy sector are based mainly on the Energy Strategy of Bulgaria until 2020, the National Long-term Programme for the Promotion of the Use of Renewable Energy Sources 2005-2015, the National Renewable Energy Action Plan and the National Long-Term Programme to Encourage the Use of Biomass for the Period 2008-2020. The main climate change mitigation target related to energy supply – 16% of energy from renewables in gross final consumption of energy by 2020 – has already been reached (16.4% in 2012). To ensure a more sustainable transition to low-carbon technologies without disproportionate impacts on electricity prices a new Energy Strategy of Bulgaria until 2030 is currently being developed.

To increase energy security, a number of projects have been implemented or are in progress, such as the underground Chiren Gas Storage facility with a capacity of about 450m m3/yr. However, the “South Stream” Project (a planned gas pipeline to transport Russian natural gas through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and other EU states) has been cancelled so new options are needed. A number of renewable energy projects are under way, including the construction of new large hydropower capacity through the Joint Implementation mechanism and support to micro hydropower through feed-in tariffs. Further potential exists to reduce electricity losses in transmission networks.

Energy demand

Bulgaria has the highest energy intensity of the EU-28, with 2.5 times more energy consumption per unit of GDP than the EU average. Although GHG emissions decreased substantially between 1988 and 2011 in energy generation (13.7%), manufacturing industry (79.1%) and other sectors (64.9%), with a slight increase in the transport sector, the structure of final gross energy consumption remains oriented towards fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal add up to more than 50% in 2011).

A number of policy instruments contribute to achieving a 25% energy efficiency increase by 2020 compared to 2005 levels, including the National Long-term Programme for Energy Efficiency Until 2015, the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2013-2015, the National Programme for the Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Financing Strategy for Building Insulation to Improve Energy Efficiency. In addition, a new National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency was adopted in July 2014 to transpose the EU Directive on energy efficiency into Bulgaria’s legislation. For the building sector, minimum energy performance standards have been set as well as eco-design requirements, energy labelling and soft-loan mechanism to support purchase of efficient appliances. In the industrial sector, individual energy saving targets and mandatory audits have been set. There are also economic incentives, including “Investments in green industry” and “Energy efficiency and green economy” grants, the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Sources Fund (EERSF), and the Residential Energy Efficiency Credit Line (REECL).

Carbon pricing

The EU ETS, introduced in September 2005, is Bulgaria’s main carbon pricing initiative. In the third period of EU ETS, most allowances are subject to auctioning. The revenues generated from auctioning allowances should be used for activities to reduce the adverse impact of climate change. The revenues are disbursed under the National Green Investment Scheme to finance energy efficiency projects, development of energy from renewable sources, development and deployment of environmentally friendly technologies, educational measures, scientific research and measures to improve the administrative capacity and management of activities under the climate change mitigation policy.

REDD+ and LULUCF

Forestry is an important economic sector, with significant state investments over the last 40 years. In 2011, forest covered 37.4% of the country and forests support valuable ecosystems and control soil erosion. They are also recognised as having a key function for climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. In the last decade the sequestration of GHG from forest areas offset between 10.7%-18.9% of total GHG emissions. In 2010 (latest available data), around 42.2% of forests were reserved for special protective and rehabilitative purposes. Since 1990 forest biomass stock has been increasing. However, the quality and quantity of forest land is threatened by several factors, including fires, floods, wind damage and disturbances by insects. Between 2007 and 2013 more than 500,000 ha forests were damaged by forest fires. Most of them (about 80%) have not yet recovered and they are prone to be further damaged by insects and diseases.

To respond to those and other challenges, several pieces of legislation have been adopted. The main legislation related to forests and LULUCF, partly reflecting EU policies, are the National Strategy for Development of the Forestry Sector 2013-2020 (2013) and the Strategic Plan for the Development of the Forest Sector 2014-2023, as well as the more general Forest Act. Forest policy contributes indirectly to climate change mitigation through forest protection and afforestation. The National Forest Fund supports financially the activities of the State Forest Agency, including investment in forestry, afforestation, forest protection and certification.

Transportation

The transportation sector is one of the largest emitters of GHGs. The most significant contributors to emissions are private cars and heavy-freight vehicles, due mainly to a significant reduction of subsidies for the railway transport and closure of some railway routes, leading to a shift in the transport structure. The main policy and strategy documents in the sector are the Strategy for Development of the Transport System until 2020 (2010), and the National Strategy for Integrated Development of Infrastructure for 2006–2015 (2006). They lay the basis for the Operational Programmes on Transport (OPT) 2007-2013 and 2014-2020, which aim at developing railway, road and waterway infrastructure and stimulating the development of a low-carbon transport mix. Energy efficiency measures in the transport sector include fuel taxes (excise duty and VAT are about 50% of the petrol and diesel fuel prices), technical inspections, speed limits outside of the cities, and reduced excise duty on biofuels (zero excise duty for biofuels and natural gas, reduced tax rates for LPG). The National Programme for Promotion of the Biofuels Use in the Transport Sector 2008-2020 (2007) sets the national indicative targets for biofuels consumption: from 2% in 2008 to 10% in 2020. Other measures have been taken to promote the use of renewables in the transportation sector, including tax exemptions for electrical vehicles.

Adaptation

According to the 6th National Communication to UNFCCC (2013), the climate in Bulgaria not only became warmer but also drier at the end of the 20th century and observed warming continued at the beginning of the 21st century and climatic scenarios reveal an increased risk and vulnerability due to soil droughts. During the last decade however, precipitation totals and extreme weather frequency have increased, with heavy rains causing severe floods (notably in 2006 and 2014).

In order to reduce vulnerability to the effects of climate change, the MOEW initiated the process towards development of a National Adaptation Strategy. As a first step, in June 2014 a Framework national climate change risk and vulnerability assessment for the economy was finalised. Its main objective is to assess the risk of climate change-related natural disasters on the basis of climate models and scenarios. The Framework covers: agriculture, water, urban environment, energy, transport, construction and infrastructure, ecosystems and biodiversity, human health and tourism. A separate chapter on cross-border co-operation on issues related to the impacts of climate change is included in the document. In parallel, the MOEW – with the support of the World Bank, has developed the financial disaster risk management and insurance options for climate change adaptation to analyse the importance of the insurance business in the prevention of and adaptation to climate change risks. Both the Framework document and the ‘Financial disaster risk management study’ should serve as a basis for the development of the ‘National Adaptation Strategy until 2030’.

Other adaptation measures have been outlined for different sectors. The Executive Forest Agency (associated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food) has presented a Programme of measures to adapt forests in the Republic of Bulgaria and mitigate the negative impact of climate change on them (2011), which is to be integrated into the National Adaptation Strategy. In the water sector, the first River Basin Management Plans were developed in 2010, with the second River Basin Management Plans expected to be completed by the end of 2015. Flood Risk Management Plans are also under preparation, with first four basin regions assessed in 2011.

To date, Bulgaria does not have any litigation listed.

The Republic of Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy with its latest Constitution adopted in 1991 after the fall of the Communist regime in 1989. The President is head of state, directly elected for a 5–year term with a two-term limit. The Prime Minister is head of the Government (Council of Ministers), which represents the executive branch. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the National Assembly. The Supreme Court of Cassation and the Supreme Administrative Court are the highest judicial bodies.

The unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) is composed of 240 members elected by popular vote for four-year terms. The electoral system is closed-list proportional representation. The last (pro-term) parliamentary election was held in October 2014 and the next is planned for autumn 2018. Any member of the National Assembly or the Council of Ministers has the right to introduce a draft law. If the draft is adopted by the National Assembly after two readings, it is sent to the President of the Republic, who signs a decree for its promulgation or returns the bill to the National Assembly for further debate. The Act is promulgated in the State Gazette and enters into force within three days, unless specified otherwise.

The Council of Ministers adopts ‘secondary legislation’: decrees, ordinances (implementing certain provisions or sections of laws), regulations (implementing a law in its entirety), rules, orders and decisions. The individual ministers issue rules, regulations, instructions and orders (to instruct subordinate bodies on the implementation of normative Acts).

Last modified 1 October, 2015