Law No. 602 – Risk Management Law ( 2014 )

This Law sets the institutional framework and the rules that govern risk management. This includes prevention, mitigation and recovery, and disaster or emergency assistance through disaster preparedness, alert, response and rehabilitation, caused by natural, social, technological and/or anthropic threats, as well as social, economic, physical and environmental vulnerabilities. The Law lists and defines the principles…read more

Law No. 602 of Risks Management ( 2014 )

This law creates a national framework for disaster prevention and resilience as well as protocols for responding to disasters. It incorporates a climate change perspective by including measures that aim to adapt to changing climate conditions. The law creates the National Advisory for the Reduction of Risks and Attention to Disasters, which will include the…read more

Law No 305 on the Efficient and Rational Use of Energy ( 2012 )

This law consists of three succinct articles (i) declaring Bolivia’s national interest in implementing plans, programmes and projects concerning energy efficiency; (ii) declaring the substitution of incandescent light bulbs for energy efficient fluorescent bulbs to be carried out through education campaigns; and (iii) that the executive branch in coordination with regional governments will develop education…read more

The Mother Earth Law and Integral Development to Live Well, Law No 300 ( 2012 )

The Mother Earth Law is a piece of legislation that epitomises Bolivia’s dedication to sustainable development, respecting the balance between human life and the natural environment, and prioritising the rights and knowledge of the country’s majority indigenous population. The expressed objective of the law is to “establish the vision and fundamentals of integral development in…read more

The Rights of Mother Earth Law ( 2010 )

This law is a general framework that preceding the more comprehensive 2012 Mother Earth Law. This law’s single objective is to recognize Mother Earth as a political subject enshrined with the following rights: life, biodiversity, water, clean air, equilibrium, restoration, and life free from contamination. The law stipulates the obligations of the government to protect…read more

Forest Law No. 1700 ( 1996 )

This law was written to bring forestry legislation up to standards with the international conventions that Bolivia has signed, including the ratification of the UNFCCC as well as the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought. The law updates the legal framework, shoring up the federal state’s authority to regulate the forestry industry and economic…read more

Supreme Decree No. 2.858 on responding to adverse events hitting the agricultural sector ( 2016 )

This Supreme Decree establishes the requirements and defines the procedure for the presentation and consideration of reprogramming requirements of credit operations with the financial system of the agricultural sector affected by adverse events. It is understood as adverse events to droughts, floods, frost, hailstorms, snowfalls, pests and diseases that have affected the agricultural sector.…read more

Supreme Decree No. 2.914 on Deforestation monitoring and control ( 2016 )

This Decree creates the Program for Monitoring and Control of Deforestation and Degradation of Forests “Our Forests”. It establishes its components and the mechanisms for its execution, according to the Economic and Social Development Plan within the framework of Integral Development to Live Well 2016-2020 and in compliance with international commitments on climate change.  …read more

Supreme Decree No. 2.342 on Risk Management ( 2015 )

This Supreme Decree regulates the Risk Management Law No. 602 of 2014, which introduced the institutional framework and the rules that govern risk management. This rules include prevention, mitigation and recovery, and disaster or emergency care through preparation, alert, response and rehabilitation against disaster risks caused by natural, socionatural, technological and anthropic threats, as well…read more

Supreme Decrees No. 2.472 and No. 2.854 creating the “Harvesting Life – Sowing Light” Program ( 2015 )

This Decree creates the “Harvesting Life - Sowing Light” Program. Its purpose is to facilitate access to safe water for human consumption and sanitation; as well as to alternative and renewable sources of energy to improve living conditions in rural communities dispersed and / or vulnerable to the effects of climate change in situations of…read more

Supreme Decree No. 942 regulating the Universal Agrarian Insurance “Pachamama” ( 2011 )

This Decree contains the regulation of the Universal Agricultural Insurance "Pachamama", through the implementation of the Agricultural Insurance for Municipalities with higher levels of Extreme Poverty (SAMEP). The "Pachamama" Universal Agrarian Insurance insures the agricultural production affected by damages caused by climatic phenomena and adverse natural disasters. The Decree also establishes the nature and institutional…read more

Supreme Decree no 071/2009 ( 2009 )

The Supreme Decree no 071/2009, signed by the Bolivian President, creates a number of authorities in the environmental area, establishes new regulatory processes in the field and changes the name of the General Superintendence of Mines and the Regional Superintendencies of Mines. Chapter III, art. 30, on the attributions of the Minister of Rural Development and Land,…read more

Supreme Decree no 29894 on the organizational structure of the Executive Branch of the Plurinational State ( 2009 )

The Supreme Decree no 29894 is a broad document reorganising the Bolivian State structure. Chapter XVII,  on the attributions of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Water, establishes in art. 94 the Ministry's hierarchical structure. This structure comprises the Vice Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity and Climate Change, which is composed of the General Directorate of Biodiversity and…read more

Executive Decree No. 29466, approving the National Programme for Energy Efficiency ( 2008 )

This two-article decree approves the National Programme for Energy Efficiency, which has the objective of establishing policies and implementing projects that optimize rational and efficient use of energy, and names the Minister of Hydrocarbons and Energy as the responsible authority. The expected results of the programme are: (i) national energy independence (ii) savings for consumers…read more

Supreme Decree No. 26.739 – General regulation of risk reduction and disaster and emergency care ( 2002 )

This Decree approves the General Regulations for Risk Reduction and Disaster and/or Emergency Response. The main purpose of this regulation is to: a) Regulate the organization, responsibilities and operation of the National System for Risk Reduction and Disaster and / or Emergency Assistance (SISRADE). b) Establish the functions and powers of the Ministries of Sustainable…read more

Supreme Decree No. 25.558 creating the Interinstitutional Council for Climate Change ( 1999 )

This Decree creates the Inter-institutional Council for Climate Change (CICC), as an instance of dialogue and consultation of the social, governmental and non-governmental sectors, related to climate change. It is the responsibility of the CICC to deliberate and propose national policies and strategies for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

Not Applicable

Economy Wide | Not Applicable | Target year: N/A | Base year: N/A

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies

Unconditional targets:|Triplicate irrigation surface to over 1 million hectares by 2030 with regards to 296.368 hectares in 2010, duplicate food production under irrigation by 2020 and triplicate by 2030, with regards to 1,69 million metric tonnes of 2010. In this manner, resilient agriculture and livestock systems will be achieved.|Increase food production under irrigation, to more than 6 millions metric tonnes by 2020 with regards to 2010.|Increase the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to 5,37% by 2030, with the contribution of resilient water and irrigation systems.|Conditional targets:|Agricultural irrigation has increased to 1.5 million hectares by 2030, compared to 2010 with 296,000 hectares.|Agricultural production under irrigation has quadrupled by 2030 (9.49 million tons) compared to 2010 (1.69 million MT).

Irrigation | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

Unconditional target:|Develop the export potential of electricity, generated mainly by renewable energies, reaching to export an estimated 8,930 MW by 2030, increasing energy state income.|Conditional target:|Bolivia‘s energy export potential has increased, generated mainly from renewable energy to power 10,489 MW by 2030.

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Reduce moderate poverty to 13.4% in 2030 and eradicated extreme poverty by 2025, according to impact, among others, of the generation and energy coverage, including growth, distribution and redistribution of energy income.

Energy Access | Target year: 2030

81% renewables in the energy mix, 9% alternative energy in the electricity by 2030

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies

Strengthened environmental functions (carbon capture and storage, organic matter and soil fertility, biodiversity conservation and water availability) in about 29 million hectares by 2030.

Ecosystem And Biodiversity | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies

Conditional target:|Increased reforestation by 6 million hectares by 2030.

Reforestation | Target year: 2030

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Unconditonal targets:|Zero illegal deforestation by 2020|Increased the surface of forested and reforested areas to 4.5 million hectares by 2030.|Increased forest areas with integrated and sustainable community management approaches with 16.9 million hectares in 2030, in reference to 3.1 million hectares by 2010. Increase net forest cover more than 54 million hectares by 2030, compared to the 52.5 million of 2010.|Contributing to an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 5.4 % in 2030, furthered by agricultural and forestry production, complementing conservation efforts.|Joint mitigation and adaptation capacity has increased in areas covered by forests, agricultural and forestry systems from 0.35 units in 2010 to 0.78 in 2030, as measured by the Index of Sustainable Forest Life, achieving productivity and conservation systems that are both complementary and resilient.|Conditional targets:|Community forest management has increased sevenfold in the area of forest management in 2030.|Timber and non-timber production has increased by 40%, doubling food production from the integrated management of forest and agricultural systems in 2030.

Sustainable Forest Management | Target year: 2030

Zero illegal deforestation by 2020

Conservation | Target year: 2020

54 million ha net forest coverage in 2030

LULUCF/Forestry: General | Target year: 2030

54 million ha afforestation by 2030

Afforestation | Target year: 2030

6 million ha reforestation by 2030

Reforestation | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies

Achieve 100% drinking water coverage by 2025, with resilient delivery services. 100% coverage of drinking water achieved by 2025, with resilient delivery systems and services.

Water Supply | Target year: 2025

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Unconditional targets:|Triplicate (3.779 million m3) water storage capacity by 2030, in relation to 596 million m3 in 2010.|Reduction of the water component of the Unsatisfied Basic Needs (NBI, for its name in Spanish) to 0.02% by 2030.|Significant improvement of social participation for local water management, increasing to 80% the number social organizations with resilient systems with respect to 35% of 2010.|Reduction of water vulnerability from 0,51 to 0,30 units by 2030 with regards to 2010, which is measured with the National Index of Hydrid Vulnerability in the country, considering aspects related to exposures (treats), hydric sensitivity (hydric scarcity) and adaptation capacity.|Increase adaptation capacity from 0,23 units of 2010 to 0,69 units by 2030, which is measured through the National Index of Adaptation Capacity of Water.|Conditional targets:|Water storage capacity has quadrupled in 2030 (3.779 million m3) compared to 2010 (596 million m3).|Local water management by social organizations has increased to 90 % by 2030.

Water Management | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Bolivia ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 as a non-annex I party and has been vocal in international climate change debates. Its national approach differs from many countries that have followed the models of UNFCCC annex I countries. A new constitution ratified in 2009 guarantees citizens the right to a healthy environment and the new social, economic, environmental and territorial model championed by the President prioritises improving the quality of life for citizens through sustainable development deemed harmonious with natural ecosystems.

In its approach to climate change Bolivia begins from the premise that wealthy industrialised countries owe a “climate debt” or “climate deficit” both to the earth (as a political subject) and to states that are not historical polluters. It calls for significant transfer of funds from countries with a “climate debt” to developing countries as payment, or reparation; as well as for increased technology transfer so that poorer countries may develop using cleaner, more efficient technology. Bolivia has proposed that the UNFCCC shall support the protection of the integrity of Mother Earth enhancing the non-market-based approach of the Convention based on co-operation among parties. In order to keep the temperature degree change below 1.5°C, a global emission index must be applied to divide among all parties the remaining carbon budget according to a criteria based on historical responsibility, right to development, ecological footprint and technological capabilities. In addition, an International Tribunal of Climate Justice must be established to oversee the fulfilment of the obligations of parties. Bolivia additionally proposed concrete mechanisms based on a non-market-approach, such as a Climate Resilience and Sustainable Development Mechanism and the Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism for the Integral and Sustainable Management of Forests, to support developing countries to promote sustainable development trajectories that combine mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

In accordance with its desire to increase democratic participation and the voice of civil society in climate change, Bolivia hosted an international summit called The World People’s Summit on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth in 2010. According to the government, more than 35,000 delegates from 140 countries participated in the conference, which was a response to the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference. The conference organised working-group committees and eventually passed a communiqué, including a “People’s Agreement” and a draft of the “Universal Declaration of Mother Earth’s Rights,” which was submitted to the UNFCCC.

The government also believes the planet is an entity with inherent rights to be protected by states. The legislature has adopted the same ideology and passed the Rights of Mother Earth Law in 2010 and The Mother Earth Law and Integral Development to Live Well Law in 2012. Together the two laws are a sweeping overhaul of the national management of natural resources, climate, and ecosystem and aims to incorporate climate change perspectives into general environmental and socio-economic legislative frameworks. Climate change is mentioned in reference to equitable distribution of wealth and the right to access clean water. The law incorporates environmental justice and climate justice into the country’s environmental legal framework, creating new authoritative bodies to implement forestry, adaptation and mitigation plans; however, it lacks any hard targets by which to measure implementation of the law.

Under The Mother Earth Law, a government authority is established to oversee the implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation principles, called the Plurinational Authority of Mother Earth and operating within the Ministry of Environment and Water (the ministry also includes a Sub-Secretary of Climate Change) and will pursue a three-pronged approach: incorporating mitigation and adaptation into national forestry management, and campaigns dedicated to mitigation and adaptation spanning various sectors of society as well as governmental institutions.

Bolivia saw the launch of the first municipal plan focused on adaptation to climate change in 2012 by the municipality of Villamontes, in the department of Tarija. The municipal government co-ordinated the adaptation plan with input from the Latin American Development Bank and national NGOs. Local indigenous groups (referred to as native peoples) called for a plan to better manage the biodiversity of the region in relation to changing climatic conditions. The plan is described as incorporating local knowledge and ancestral traditions of environmental management. It is meant to serve as a replicable model for other municipalities, especially in areas where communities depend on the local natural environment for their sustenance and economic security.

Energy Supply

The Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (2009) reports that Bolivia is nearly self-sufficient in terms of electric energy consumption and that “the government’s goal is to turn Bolivia into an energy powerhouse in the region.” The government posits that vast reserves of natural gas and significant hydropower electricity will maintain relatively low carbon emissions. An executive decree passed in 2005 approving The National Programme for Energy Efficiency was the first policy to treat both energy supply and demand in relation to climate change. The Plan sought to make reality the “vision” of Bolivia exploiting electricity-producing energy sources to sufficiently satisfy internal demand (including the demand of the country’s poorest citizens) in a rational and efficient manner as well as becoming a principle exporter of electricity in the South American Andean region.

The Law of Mother Earth (2012) reinforces the state’s preference for natural gas as a relatively low-carbon emitting resource. It states that the government shall incrementally require a growing percentage of energy consumed through the national electrical grid to be sourced from renewable “alternative sources”, but it does not give a timeframe or set any measurable targets.

Energy Demand

In various pieces of framework legislation, including the Constitution and the General Law of Electricity (1992), the rational and efficient use of energy is mentioned as a national interest. This is reinforced by the executive decree for Energy Efficiency and the Law of Mother Earth. The Plan for Energy Efficiency granted considerable authority to the Ministry of Hydrocarbons and Energy to create and enforce various energy efficiency standards, educational campaigns encouraging efficient consumption. The Plan also called for the drafting of a General Law on Energy Efficiency, which was passed in 2012. The law contains broad directions for the national and regional government to incentivise “plans, programmes and projects that seek to optimise rational use of energy” through education campaigns. The only specific directive is the project to encourage voluntarily adoption of energy efficient light bulbs (for example giving away five million efficient incandescent light bulbs).

Carbon pricing

Bolivia has a national policy stance of rejecting carbon markets. It argues that effective mitigation will come from measurable reduction of emissions domestically rather than through trading schemes that allow firms to obscure or “offset” their material emissions. As a country facing a variety of development challenges, Bolivia critiques carbon markets as an opportunity for wealthy industrialised countries to purchase emission reductions in other countries while continuing to pollute at the same rate in their own country. For this reason it refuses to participate in any carbon pricing and trading scheme.

REDD+ and LULUCF

An estimated 50% of territory is forested and 250,000 ha are lost each year most of them in areas classified as agricultural lands in the Land Use Plans of the country, mainly to agricultural expansion, small-scale farmers moving their operations to the lowlands due to highland drought, and unsustainable logging practices. Bolivia started to develop the REDD+ programme but later rejected the programme and is now one of the most critical voices against REDD+ implementation. The programme was renegotiated and redrafted in order to support the Bolivian proposal of the Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism for the Integral and Sustainable Management of Forests.

REDD, as conceived by international agencies and media, has come under criticism by indigenous groups and the government. Indigenous leaders joined other Latin American indigenous peoples at a parallel summit to the Rio+20 meeting and denounced REDD+ contracts and carbon credits associated with REDD programmes. They have called into doubt which political and commercial actors directly benefit from REDD+ programmes and have condemned any attempt to commodify nature while ignoring the traditional knowledge of indigenous cultures. The Law of Mother Earth responds to this criticism by prioritising traditional mechanisms of caring for forested areas.

Adaptation

The Law of Mother Earth proposes the development of the Plurinational Plan of Climate Change that include mitigation and adaptation, still under elaboration in the government. There is no specific legislation or executive decree on adaptation to climate change, but the National Development Plan (2006) calls for adaptation to climate change. The National Climate Change Programme has developed and implemented adaptation projects in various regions of the country.

The Mother Earth Law has an implicit focus on harmonising human and community development with the ecosystem. It therefore establishes a framework through which the government may prepare for future climate changes. By the close of 2014, for example, the government promulgated a disaster risk management law, which incorporates climate change forecasts into national, regional and local risk management strategies. In addition to creating a national fund to finance prevention projects (including adaptation programming), it decentralises planning, giving local and regional governments more authority and responsibility for building resiliency, managing risk, and responding to disaster.

At time of publication, Bolivia was reportedly developing the Plurinational Plan of Mother Earth and Climate Change. The Plan will evaluate and estimate the impacts of governmental actions with respect to climate change. The scope of the Plan as well as the defining elements of the INDCs are still being determined.

To date, Bolivia does not have any litigation listed.

The Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2009 that prioritises popular democratic participation and affirms social, economic and political plurality. The government is divided into four branches: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. The executive branch is composed of the President (head of state), Vice-President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The legislative branch is bicameral and consists of the Senate – in which 36 members sit, four representatives from each of the nine regional authorities (called departments) – and the House of Deputies – with 130 members, half of whom are elected by popular direct vote and the other half listed on the presidential ticket. The most recent elections were held in December 2014 and the next legislative elections will be held in 2019.

Any congressional representative, the Vice-President, the President, the Supreme Court, or any citizen of the Republic may initiate proposed legislation, called law projects. Once a law project is passed in one house, it is debated and considered in the other. Both houses must pass the bill by a simple majority, and modifications must be resolved between the two houses by a conference committee before the President can sign it into law. Should the President oppose some provision of the legislation, he/she may return the bill with a written statement to the house of origin where the objections will be considered and passed with modifications (again in both houses). Alternatively Congress may override presidential objections or veto by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.

Last modified 21 August, 2017