Angola ratified the UNFCCC in 2000, and the Kyoto Protocol in 2007. The government has been making an effort to establish policies and regulation to protect the environment and address climate change. However, Angola still suffers the impacts of a devastating civil war that started in 1975 and lasted until 2002, after Angola gained its independence from Portugal. As a result of this long conflict, institutions face organisational deficiencies and there is a general lack of human resources in the country. Despite being the third-largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa, around 36% of Angolans live below the poverty line. At the same time, CO2 emissions are increasing rapidly in the country. Increase in crude oil output, land-use change, especially deforestation and forest degradation, constitute major sources of GHG emissions in Angola.

The main climate change forum is the National Committee on Climate Change and Biodiversity. This was created in 2012 under the Minister of Environment, and is composed of representatives from the Ministry of Oil; the Ministry of Transport; the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology; the Ministry of Health; the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries; the Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technology. The Committee has a number of responsibilities: harmonising the programmes and policies for the implementation of the National Climate Change and Biodiversity Strategies; creating the necessary conditions for the implementation of the National Climate Change Plan; creating a national plan for investments integrating issues related to climate change, biodiversity and desertification; and creating centres of excellence to carry out research on natural disasters and systematic observation and investigation of climate.

Angola has a National Implementation Strategy for the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, which was approved in 2008. The Strategy called for the preparation of GHG inventories and reports, the adoption of mitigation programmes, promotion of awareness, knowledge and experience sharing through international co-operation, promotion of clean technologies and the establishment of a structure to promote the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Out of these activities, in 2009 the government established a Designated National Authority, and in 2012 submitted its Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC, which presented the national GHG inventory, covering energy, industrial processes, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste. Beyond that, education, awareness rising and investigation actions are being conducted. A Climate Action Plan, which should follow the Strategy, was not yet prepared. The Ministry of Environment, with support from the UNDP, is currently working on the Second National GHG Inventory and on the preparation of the Second National Communication under the UNFCCC.

In addition to the National Implementation Strategy, the government is starting to integrate climate change into broad national strategies. The 2013-2017 National Development Plan (PND, in Portuguese) is the first medium-term plan drafted within the framework of the new Constitution of Angola. The PND focuses on poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, accelerated infrastructure development, assistance to young entrepreneurs, and better access to education and training. Some of the activities planned by the PND are relevant to climate change: the improvement of meteorological centres and services; the promotion of afforestation and reforestation; the adoption of measures to control floods and droughts; the promotion of decentralisation and diversification of energy sources (e.g. small hydroelectric plants, hydro, solar, wind and biomass); and the improvement of public transportation at the municipal, provincial and inter-provincial levels. The Plan explicitly mentions the need to improve irrigation as a way to reduce the impacts of climate change, and it requires the implementation of national climate change programmes.

The government is also trying to improve its knowledge of Angola’s GHG emissions and vulnerabilities to climate change. The initial National Communication to the UNFCCC, for example, acknowledges the difficulties in obtaining reliable information on climate variation and emissions. The National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET), created in 2006, is the main institution responsible for monitoring the weather and the climate. INAMET has a new strategic development plan for 2014-2020, which aims at improving investments in equipment and specialised technical personnel. The government also created the Centre of Tropical Ecology and Climate Change (CETAC) in 2012, which has a Department responsible for implementing and controlling climate change policies. The Strategic Plan for New Environmental Technologies created in 2013 explicitly takes into consideration the commitments assumed by Angola within the UNFCCC and calls for the implementation of environmental technologies that can optimise the use of natural resources, energy efficiency and promote sustainable development. The National Action Programme to fight Desertification (PANCOD), approved in 2014, further addresses this issue, containing a cross-cutting strategy which can contribute to promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Energy supply

Angola’s economy is largely dependent on oil production. Oil revenue accounted for almost 80% of total government revenue in 2011. Yet, Angola’s oil is mainly exported, rather than used for the country’s own energy production. The latest 2011 estimate from the World Bank indicates that only 37.8% of Angolans have access to electricity. The majority of people still use traditional solid biomass and waste (typically consisting of wood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues) to meet off-grid heating and cooking needs, mainly in rural areas. In 2011, about 55% of primary energy consumption consisted of traditional solid biomass and waste.

Energy strategies and policies are under the auspices of the Inter-ministerial Commission on National Energy Security. This Inter-ministerial Commission is responsible for establishing the energy security programme, for defining the institutional structure for implementing this programme, and for guiding the energy balance and the energy matrix in the country. In 2011 the Inter-ministerial Commission established four principles to guide the formulation of energy strategies and policies. These principles are: to establish energy as a main driver of economic development; to develop infrastructure in order to provide affordable energy to the population; to encourage efficient operation and financial stability of the energy sector; and to promote a sustainable development of the economy and society, reducing social and geographical disparities and increasing energy security and environmental sustainability.

In past years, one of the focuses of the government has been to increase electricity supply through renewable energy. In addition to passing legislation, a number of bioenergy projects have been established. These projects aim to produce ethanol from sugar cane (based on the Brazilian model) and biodiesel from palm oil and sunflower seed. The government also wants to increase the amount of energy produced from wind and solar sources. With the extension and diversification of energy sources, the government hopes to improve access to electricity and reduce GHG emissions in rural areas, where in 2009 the contribution of biomass amounted to 80% of all energy. The government also expects that these projects will open way for a multi-billion dollar investment in the energy sector, which would reduce dependence on oil and also develop the farming sector, which was deeply affected by the civil war. In May 2014 the African Development Bank (AFDB) approved a USD1bn loan to help develop Angola’s war-ravaged electricity network and facilitate governmental reforms. The government plans to spend USD23bn by 2017 to quintuple installed capacity by building large dams and improving the power transport and distribution networks.

REDD+ and LULUCF

The National Implementation Strategy for the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol contains recommendations for reducing deforestation from forestry exploration, agricultural practices, forest fires, use of wood and coal.

In 2010 the government published its National Policy for Forestry, Wildlife and Conservation Areas and the National Afforestation and Reforestation Strategy. The Afforestation and Reforestation Strategy requires the increase of commercial or industrial forests, as well as protection and conservation of native forests. Angola’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), published in 2011, lists within its priorities the promotion of alternative renewable energies to avoid deforestation, and the promotion of sustainable land management to increase agricultural yields.

In 2013 the GEF Council approved a USD4.41m grant to implement a project to integrate climate change into sustainable land management practices. The project will disseminate sustainable land management and adaptation practices in agro-forestry and land ecology in 350 communities.

Adaptation

The main document concerning adaptation is the 2011 National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). The Global Environmental Fund (GEF) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provided financial and technical support for the drafting of Angola’s NAPA. The NAPA acknowledges that there is not enough data allowing for a rigorous estimation of expected climate changes in Angola. Yet, based on available knowledge and priorities expressed during a consultation project, the NAPA was able to determine a list of adaptation priorities. These priorities include studying the vulnerability of fishing activities in relation to modifications of climate and currents, revising sectoral laws for proactive adaptation, creating early warning systems for flooding and storms, establishing a national institutional mechanism for adaptation planning and mainstreaming, creating soil erosion control through organic methods; and diversifying crops to less climate sensitive cultures.

The National Action Programme to fight Desertification (PANCOD), approved in 2014, further addresses a number of measures relevant to climate change adaptation. A broad range of practices and technologies established by the PANCOD to combat desertification have the potential to either reduce GHG emissions or increase resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change.

Law 06/10 on sugar cane production for biofuel ( 2010 )

This Law regulates sugar cane production for biofuel purposes. It establishes the general basis for promoting the sugar cane cultivation and other plants in order to exploit their products, in particular with the purpose of biofuel production. Under this law, foreign companies which invest in biofuels must sell to state-owned oil firm Sonangol part of…read more

Presidential Decree 17/14 which approves the Modernisation Programme of the National Institution of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) ( 2014 )

This Presidential Decree approves the Modernisation Programme of the National Institution of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) and the Strategic Development Plan (PDE) for the period 2014-2020. This Modernisation Programme establishes INAMET’s inter-ministerial interest. INAMET should deal with climate change, and also civil protection, agriculture, environment, fisheries, water resources, oil, industry, transports, civil construction and energy.…read more

Presidential Decree 85/14 which approves the Statute of the Ministry for Environment (MINAMB) ( 2014 )

This Presidential Decree approves the Statute of the Ministry for Environment (MINAMB). The Statute establishes attributions, composition and competences of the MINAMB. MINAMB is responsible for co-ordinating and overseeing the implementation of measures, strategies, plans and projects on climate change. It is also responsible for promoting projects and programmes to stabilise GHGs. This Presidential Decree…read more

Executive Decree 65/13 which approves the Regulation of the National Direction of Petroleum and Biofuel ( 2013 )

This Executive Decree approves the Regulation of the National Direction of Petroleum and Biofuel within the Ministry of Petroleum. The Regulation establishes composition, duties and responsibilities of the National Direction, entitled to promoting the implementation of the National Policy on Petroleum, for activities related to licensing, exploitation, development and production of petroleum, including processing and…read more

Presidential Decree 88/13 which approves the Strategic Plan for New Environmental Technologies ( 2013 )

This Presidential Decree approves the Strategic Plan for New Environmental Technologies. This Plan aims at protecting, preserving and conserving environmental quality standards, controlling environmental pollution as well as conservation areas, including the valorisation of natural heritage its preservation and rational use of renewable natural resources. It explicitly takes into consideration the commitments assumed by Angola…read more

National Development Plan 2013-2017 ( 2012 )

The National Development Plan includes in its environmental objectives the development of national programmes on climate change, the promotion of the use of clean energy, and the adoption of environmental technologies in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries.…read more

Presidential Decree 184/12 which creates and approves the Statute of the Centre of Tropical Ecology and Climate Change (CETAC) ( 2012 )

This Presidential Decree creates and approves the Statute of the Centre of Tropical Ecology and Climate Change (CETAC). This Statute establishes CETAC’s composition, duties and responsibilities. CETAC is entitled to carry out researches and investigations in the domain of the tropical ecology and management of natural ecosystems to support the designing and implementation of environment…read more

Presidential Order 10/12 which creates the National Committee on Climate Change and Biodiversity ( 2012 )

This Presidential Order creates the National Committee on Climate Change and Biodiversity. It creates it as an inter-ministerial Committee, establishing its duties and responsibilities. The Committee is responsible for harmonising the programmes and policies for the implementation of the National Climate Change and Biodiversity Strategies; creating the necessary conditions for the implementation of the National…read more

Executive Directive no. 303/14 -Internal Regulation of the National Direction for Renewable Energies ( 2011 )

The Executive Decree no. 303/14 defines the organisation, composition, functioning and missions of the National Direction of Renewable Energies (DNER). It replaces Decree no. 161/10 which approved the previous regulation of the DNER. DNER is an executive service of the Ministry of Energy and Waters and has following responsibilities: designing, proposing and implementing the policy…read more

Resolution 52/08, establishing the National Strategy for the Implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol ( 2008 / Mitigation and Adaptation Framework )

Resolution 52/08 approved the National Implementation Strategy for the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The Strategy requires that the government: (i) elaborates GHG inventories and reports about their impact on the environment and on public health; (ii) adopts programmes and projects to mitigate the effects of climate change; (iii) promotes technical/professional awareness; (iv) fosters international…read more
To date, Angola does not have any litigation listed.

Emissions More information

Rank as emitter (including LULUCF):
21-50
GHG Emissions 2007-2011 (MtCO2e)
Country-reported GHG emissions (incl. LULUCF) (MTCO2):63.52 (reporting year: 2005 )
Country-reported GHG emissions (excl. LULUCF) (MTCO2):61.61 (reporting year: 2005 )

Information More information

GHG inventory:2000, 2005
Climate risk assessment:National Action Programme to Fight Desertification (PANCOD)

Targets

Economy wide targets - Up to (and including) 2020

Source:
    Economy-wide targets - Beyond 2020

    GHG emissions reduction of 35% to 50% by 2030 compared to business-as-usual scenario, conditional on external support.

    Source:
    • Country's iNDC
    Targets - Energy demand

    None

    Targets - LULUCF

    None

    Targets - Renewables

    None

    Targets- Transport

    None

    Policies

    GHG Mitigation framework More information

    Resolution 52/08, establishing the National Strategy for the Implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol (2008)

    Source:
    Adaptation framework More information

    Resolution 52/08, establishing the National Strategy for the Implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol (2008)

    Source:
    Policies - Carbon pricing

    None

    Policies - Promotion of low-carbon energy (inc. renewables)

    Regulates sugar cane production for biofuel purposes

    Source:
    Policies - Energy demand

    Encourages energy efficiency in buildings and appliances

    Source:
    Policies - Transport

    Encourages the promotion of sustainability of the transport sector

    Source:
    Policies - LULUCF

    None

    The legislative process in Angola is established by the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution defines the Angola as a unitary state. The President of the Republic is the Head of State, the Executive Power and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Among its duties, the President of the Republic shall enact the laws of the National Assembly. The President should enact a law within 30 days of receiving it; within this period, the President can ask the National Assembly to reconsider the legislation. If, after this reconsideration, a two-thirds majority of the Members approve the legislation, the President must enact it within 15 days. The President also issues Presidential legislative decrees, provisional Presidential legislative decrees, Presidential decrees, and Presidential dispatches, which are published in the Diário da República (Official Gazette).

    The National Assembly is the parliament, a unicameral body, with 220 members. The members are elected for five years according to a system of proportional representation, where 130 members are elected at national level, and 90 members are elected by provincial districts (five members for each province). After the first election for the National Assembly was held in 1992, the following election, scheduled for 1997, was delayed on numerous occasions until it was eventually held in 2008. The last election was held in 2012.

    In the exercise of its functions, the National Assembly issues constitutional revision laws, organic laws, general laws, authorisations to legislate, and resolutions. Unless authorisation is granted to the Executive to do so, the National Assembly has competence for legislating on nature protection, ecological and environmental balance, and cultural heritage.

    The power to initiate legislation is exercised by Members of Parliament, Parliamentary Groups and the President. Groups of citizens and the organisations representing them may present proposals for introducing new legislation. Bills of laws and resolutions are approved by an absolute majority vote of the Members present, provided that this amounts to more than half of the Members in full exercise of their office.

    Responsibilities of local authorities include energy, water, transport, civil defence, the environment and basic sanitation, promotion of economic and social development.

    AfDB, 2014. AfDB and Global Environment Facility to Strengthen Climate Change Adaptation with USD 33.58 million. https://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/afdb-and-global-environment-facility-to-strengthen-climate-change-adaptation-with-usd-33-58-million-12082/. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    AfDB, 2014. BAD concede mil milhões de dólares para melhorar sector de energia de Angola. https://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/afdb-and-global-environment-facility-to-strengthen-climate-change-adaptation-with-usd-33-58-million-12082/. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angolan Environmental and Climate Change Legislation available on [http://faolex.fao.org]

    Angola’s Constitution, 2010.  http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=196467. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angola’s Initial Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC, 2012. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/agonc1.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angola Ministry of Energy and Water. Official website. http://www.minea.gv.ao/. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angola’s 2013-2017 National Development Plan. Official website, DOE Portal. http://www.embangola-can.org/pdf/PND.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angola’s Ministry of Environment. Official website, DOE Portal.  http://www.minamb.gov.ao/. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Angola’s Parliament, 2013. Official website, DOE Portal.  http://www.parlamento.ao/#http://www.parlamento.ao/glue/AN_Navigation_home.jsp?. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    US Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=ao. Accessed 6 June 2014.

    Last modified 21 August, 2017