Law No. 04-09 relative to Renewable Energy Promotion in the Framework of Sustainable Development ( 2004 )

Builds on the general commitments outlined in Law No. 99-09 relative to the Management of Energy, laying the foundations for a requisite “national programme to support renewable energy within the context of sustainable development.” Codifies Algeria’s environmental mission to: promote the domestic development of renewable energy sources, to curb climate change by limiting GHG emissions,…read more

Law No. 04-20 relative to the Prevention of Major Risks and the Management of Catastrophes in the Framework of Sustainable Development ( 2004 )

The Law establishes the legal framework for disaster prevention and disaster risk management in Algeria. This Law is not limited to climate change-related risks, but explicitly includes climatic risks, and climate related areas (notably flooding and forest fires), in addition to other non-climate related disasters.…read more

Law 99-09 relative to the Management of Energy ( 1999 )

Establishes the framework and conditions for the National Programme for the Management of Energy, outlining parameters for: efficient consumption, energy conservation/energy efficiency, the reduction of GHG emissions and general air pollution, the education of both government agencies and the populace regarding energy efficiency, and the development of renewable energy technologies and sources inclusive of solar,…read more

Regulatory Order fixing the guaranteed purchase price and the conditions of their application for electricity generated from facilities using photovoltaic segment ( 2014 )

Establishes a variable 20-year Solar PV feed-in-tariff (FIT) for ground-mounted solar installations greater than 1MW. Fixes the FIT for 1MW to 5MW installations at 15.94 DZD per kWh for the first 5 years and between 20.08 DZD per kWh to 11.80 DZD per kWh for the following 15 years. For installations larger than 5MW, the…read more

The National Climate Plan ( 2013 / Mitigation and adaptation Framework )

The National Climate Plan presents an agenda both in terms of mitigation and adaptation, aims to realize sustained economic growth and inclusive social development, while taking due account of climate change related challenges. It provides an overview of climate change vulnerabilities in Algeria and proposes over 70 action measures, including: - adoption of cleaner energy…read more

Executive Decree No. 2011-33 on the establishment, organization and functioning of the Algerian Institute of Renewable Energy ( 2011 )

Establishes the Algerian Institute of Renewable Energy (IAER) under the supervision of the Minister for Energy. Outlines the responsibilities of the IAER to include: - managing institutional needs and public and private organizations for the training and development of renewable energy and energy efficiency; - promoting research in the fields of renewable energy and energy…read more

Executive Decree No. 2011-423 fixing the operating procedures of the Trust Account No. 302-1221 “National Fund for Renewable Energy and Cogeneration” ( 2011 )

Amends the operating procedures of the National Fund for Renewable Energy and Cogeneration, first established pursuant to the Finance Act of 2010, to increase the revenue paid into this fund from .5% of oil royalties to 1% of oil royalties, plus any additional contributions. Grants authority to the Minister of Finance to jointly manage expenditures…read more

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan ( 2011 )

The main objective of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan is to expand usage of renewable energies and to diversify energy sources in the country. The Plan’s renewable energy goals are: - To install 22,000MW of power generating capacity from renewable sources between 2011 and 2030 (of which 12,000MW for internal usage and…read more

Executive Decree No. 10-258 establishing the powers of the Minister of Planning and the Environment ( 2010 )

Outlines the authority of the Minister of Planning and the Environment to recommend national policy related to sustainable development, land use management, and the environment. Authorizes the Minster to: - develop and implement national strategies for sustainable development and the environment; - planning the incremental evolution of cities and the distribution of equipment, activities, and…read more

Executive Decree No. 2006-138 regulating the emissions into the atmosphere of gases, fumes, liquids or solid particles ( 2006 )

Establishes emission limits for stationary sources, particularly industrial facilities, for certain gases, including GHGs and nitrous oxide. Notably, excludes a number of GHGs from the list of gases with emission limits, including CO2, methane, and ozone. Requires industrial facility operators to keep registers of emissions released into the atmosphere. Prohibits such facilities from exceeding the…read more

Executive Decree No. 2005-375 Creating the National Agency on Climate Change, fixing its missions and defining terms of its organisation and operation ( 2005 )

Establishes a new National Agency on Climate Change (ANCC), under the supervision of the Minister of Environment, whose primary mission is to contribute to the protection of the environment by assisting with the integration of climate change impact concerns in development plans. Additionally, the ANCC is charged with researching, synthesizing and engaging with the public…read more

Executive Decree No. 2005-495 relative to the establishment of energy audits for large consumers ( 2005 )

Establishes the parameters of new mandatory energy audits for: (1) industrial companies whose energy consumption exceeds or is equal to 2,000 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe); (2) transportation companies whose energy consumption exceeds or is equal to 1,000 tonnes of oil equivalent (toe); and (3) service sector companies whose energy consumption exceeds or is equal…read more

Executive Decree No. 2004-92 On the Diversification of Power Generation Costs ( 2004 )

Further details the procedures governing a feed-in tariff mechanism to encourage renewable energy development, diversifying Algeria’s national energy mix, pursuant to Law 02-01 (5 February 2002) establishing a legal framework for a feed-in-tariff scheme. This tariff provides for an additional premium to be paid, per kWh, to eligible renewable and co-generation facilities, above the base…read more

Economy-wide

NDC Laws and National Policies

7% (with domestic means) to 22% (conditional) reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 compared to the BAU levels

Economy Wide | Baseline Scenario Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: business as usual scenario

Source: NDC

Reduction of GHG emissions of 7 to 22% by 2030 against a 2013 baseline

Economy Wide | Base Year Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2013 | Source(s): The Nation... (2013 / Executive)

Energy

NDC Laws and National Policies

1% reduction by 2030

Gas Flaring | Target year: 2030

New PV projects of overall power at 800 MW by 2020, and 200 MW per annum over 2021-2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

27% of electricity generated from renewable sources by 2030

Renewable Energy | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

Wind farms to be installed: 10 MW in 2013, 2x20 MW in 2015, total of 1700 MW in 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Objectives of installed renewable energy power in 2013 (110 MW), 2015 (650 MW), 2020 (2 600 MW and potential for exportations fo 2 000 MW), 2030 (120 000 MW and 10 000 MW for exports)

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Wind to reach 3% of national power supply by 2030

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Solar to reach 37% of national power supply by 2030

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Uptake of renewable energies and sets a target of installing of 22,000 MW of renewable power capacity between 2011 and 2030, divided between 12, 000 MW to be dedicated to cover the national demand for electricity and 10,000 MW for export by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): The Nation... (2013 / Executive)

To install 22,000MW of power generating capacity from renewable sources between 2011 and 2030 (of which 12,000MW for internal usage and 10,000MW for export), meeting 20% of electricity generation from renewables by 2030

Renewable Energy | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Industry

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Uptake of share of national industrial capacity in the wind power sector (50% at 2020, 80% at 2030) by 2020, 2030 against a 2011 baseline

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Uptake of share of national industrial capacity in the heat solar sector (50% at 2020, 80% at 2030) by 2020, 2030 against a 2011 baseline

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Uptake of share of national industrial capacity in the PV solar sector (targets set for 60% at 2013, 80% at 2020, over 80% at 2030) by 2013, 2020, 2030 against a 2011 baseline

Renewable Energy | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

LULUCF

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

Achieving 35,000 hectares of forests and developing another 175,000 hectares by 2030 against a 2013 baseline

Afforestation | Fixed Level Target | Target year: 2030 | Base year: 2013 | Source(s): The Nation... (2013 / Executive)

Transportation

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.

LNG (liquified natural gas) to reach 20% share of car fleet by 2020

Biofuels | Trajectory Target | Target year: 2020 | Base year: 2011 | Source(s): Renewable ... (2011 / Executive)

Agriculture

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Buildings

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Coastal Zones

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Cross-Cutting Area

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Environment

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Health

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Social Development

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Tourism

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Urban

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Waste

NDC Laws and National Policies

Full coverage of wastes dumps by 2030

Waste: General | Target year: 2030

Source: NDC

There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

Water

NDC Laws and National Policies
There are no quantifiable targets found in the NDC.There are no quantifiable targets found in the laws and policies.

North Africa, in particular Algeria, is subject to a high degree of climate variability across different regions and seasons which makes it highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Although it is the second largest country in Africa, spanning nearly 2.4m km2 with a population of around 38.8m, nearly 87% of land is in the Sahara Desert region and only just over 3% of land is considered arable. Algeria’s First National Communication to the UNFCCC was submitted in 2001, and it highlights particular concerns regarding chronic drought and insufficient water resources. Such environmental difficulties have substantial implications for the ability of Algeria to maintain its agriculture industry, which is over 9% of total GDP, and to provide adequate freshwater resources to its people.

Algeria’s environmental challenges, coupled with its significant reliance on fossil fuels, which account for 99% of electricity generation, has led the government to prioritise investments in both climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, one of the only North African countries to explicitly articulate comprehensive national adaptation and climate change mitigation strategies. These strategies largely focus on 3 areas: (i) implementing plans for sustainable socio-economic development, (ii) building new and strengthening and integrating existing institutions and human capacity, and (iii) mitigating GHG emissions via energy diversification and reforestation efforts. Although most policy objectives are codified in law, the laws generally do not outline specific policy prescriptions. Rather, they direct or recommend that the details be laid out in regulation.

While climate change mitigation and adaptation measures frequently require inter-ministerial collaboration, most legislation pertaining to climate change mitigation and adaptation falls under the broad authority of four ministries: Land Management and the Environment (MATE), Energy and Mines, Water Resources and Agriculture and Rural Development.

There are also several specialist agencies and centres that were created to specifically address the challenges associated with climate change, particularly in the context of sustainable development. These include: the National Observatory for Environment and Sustainable Development (ONEDD), the National Waste Management Agency (AND), National Centre for the Development of Biological Resources (CNRB), the National Centre for Cleaner Production Technologies (CNTPP), the National Agency for Climate Change (ANCC), the Inter-sectoral Council of Energy Management (ICEM), and the National Agency for the Promotion and Rational Use of Energy (APRUE).

Since 1994, Algeria has been home to a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) monitoring programme, in co-ordination with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with funding support from the World Bank, at Tamanrasset and Assekrem, in the Central Sahara. The remote location of these sites enables successful monitoring of GHGs, aerosols, ozone, carbon monoxide, and radiation. In accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), Algeria has conducted and published two national GHG inventories and absorptions: the first in 1996, the results of which are explained in the First National Communication, and the second in 2000, the results of which are explained in the Second National Communication, of November 2010.  Following its creation in 2005, the National Agency for Climate Change, is charged with conducting more periodic inventories of GHG emissions.

Several National Action Plans support the goal of sustainable economic development. In 2002, Algeria published its first National Plan of Action for the Environment and Sustainable Development (PNAE-DD), financed with a grant from the European Commission and the Swiss Agency for Development and Corporation (SDC) and further assisted by the World Bank, German Technical Co-operation Agency (GTZ), and the Mediterranean Environment Technical Assistance Program (METAP).  This plan highlights Algeria’s previous lack of integration of policies, programmes, enforcement action and institutions relative to climate change and the environment, proposing that, moving forward, Algeria mainstream its goals for environmental protection with a sustainable development agenda.

In 2003, Algeria adopted a National Plan of Action and Adaptation to Climate Change (PNA-ACC), which was updated in 2013. This plan outlines both climate change mitigation and adaptation policy measures including the promotion of: renewable energy technologies, carbon sequestration, industrial emission reductions, reforestation and water system innovation.

Algeria is the home of one of the world’s largest carbon capture and storage facilities at the In Salah natural gas operation in the Sahara Desert. Operated by state oil and gas firm Sonatrach in conjunction with BP and Norway’s Statoil, In Salah stores around 800,000 tons of CO2 per year, about 1.2 miles underground. In Salah successfully cuts the CO2 gas released from the gas fields from 7% to 0.3% at a relatively low cost of around USD14 per ton.

Algeria frequently engages with a number of supranational actors regarding regional adaptation and mitigation measures, including the African Union, the Arab League, and the Arab Maghreb Union; however, none of the declarations or initiatives agreed upon by these organisations are legally binding.

Energy Supply

More than 99% of Algeria’s electricity generation is fossil fuel sourced, with the remainder generated by hydropower. Sonatrach owns approximately 80% of all hydrocarbon production. Energy use is the primary source of GHG emissions in the country, accounting for more than 69% of total net emissions, followed by land use and forest management, then agriculture.

In 2011, with the adoption of a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan, Algeria set an ambitious goal of achieving 40% of national electricity generation via renewable sources by 2030. The Renewable Energy Programme sets a target of 37% from solar power and 3% from wind power, with a total of 23,000MW of renewable capacity by 2030, of which 10,000MW would be allocated for export to the European energy market. Algeria successfully completed construction, in 2011, of a solar combined-cycle hybrid power plant at the Hassi R’Mei natural gas field about 300 miles south of Algiers.

The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan builds on existing policies and measures to encourage investment in low carbon energy production, including feed-in tariffs for solar PV and other renewables installations through a law on the Diversification of Power Generation Costs and the Renewable Energy National Fund which uses a 0.5% levy on oil tax revenues to fund actions through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Plan. Additionally the 1999 Law on the Management of Energy and the 2004 Law on Renewable Energy Promotion in the Framework of Sustainable Development establish frameworks and financial incentive measures to encourage the development of low carbon energy, including establishing Certificates of Origin for renewable energy sources and a National Observatory for the Promotion of Renewable Energies.

Energy Demand

Electricity demand is expected to more than double by 2030; however, the hydrocarbons sector, which accounts for one third of GDP and 98% of exports (World Bank), has experienced a significant decline in production since 2006. This prospective stress on electricity supply is spurring the further development of hydrocarbon resources and investments in renewable energy sources.

The 2011 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan focuses on a number of measures to improve the efficient use of energy: improvement of heat insulation of buildings; development of solar water heating; promotion of co-generation; promotion of LPG and natural gas fuels; developing solar cooling systems; converting simply cycle power plants to combined cycle power plants; desalinating water using renewable energy; substituting all mercury lamps with sodium lamps and promoting the use of low-energy lamps.

Energy efficiency programmes are overseen by the National Agency for the Promotion and Rational Use of Energy (APRUE).

REDD+ and LULUCF

Forest management falls under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, specifically the Directorate General of Forests. According to the Second National Communication, Algeria has 4.1m ha of forestland, of which 1.3m ha in natural forestland (32.4%), 1.8m ha is brush/scrub (44%) and the remaining 970,000 ha is lawn and reforestation land (23.6%).

In 1999, Algeria adopted a National Reforestation Plan (PNR) with a long-term vision of planting 1.2m ha of forests by 2020. The General Director of Forests announced, as of March 2014, that the plan was 50% complete.

Algeria is also participating in the Collaborative Partnership on Mediterranean Forests’ programme on Adapting Forest Policy Conditions to Climate Change in the MENA Region, which aims to identify forestry-related adaptation measures as a result of regional co-operation and the integration of climate change into forest policies by the end of 2015.

Transportation

Algeria is developing new transportation networks, prioritising electric rail transport, with the aim of increasing access to currently isolated regions and reducing emissions associated with non-electric transportation. The goal is to increase the existing 4,000km of rail track to 11,300km by 2020.

Algiers, the capital of Algeria, opened a metro system, in 2011, and in 2012, the Algiers Metro Authority (EMA) announced Algeria would invest about USD 6bn in light rail systems across 14 major cities. Most recently, tramway systems were opened in the cities of Oran and Constantine, in 2013.  Some 350m2 of solar panelling has been installed on the maintenance sheds for Algiers commuter trains and many of the train workshop vehicles are powered by electricity.

Adaptation

Apart from the National Plan of Action and Adaptation to Climate Change (2003), adaptation measures have largely focused on sustainably meeting the growing demand for a secure water supply, particularly in cities and coastal towns. Algeria has invested around USD20bn in dams, water treatment plants, drinking water sanitation and desalination facilitates. The most recent 5-year infrastructure plan (2010-2014), includes the construction of 35 dams, 35 supply treatment plants, over 3,000 upgrades to drinking water facilities, and eight new desalination plants, in addition to the 21 small-capacity plants built in 2002-2003. The Second National Communication to the UNFCCC identified a number of potential adaptation measures for the water sector, as well as irrigation goals for agriculture.

In an effort to curb desertification and protect the desert oasis system and the biodiversity contained therein, Algeria adopted the National Action Plan to Fight Against Desertification (PAN-LCD) in 2004 and a National Biodiversity Action Plan in 2005. The 2004 Law on the Prevention of Major Risks and the Management of Catastrophes in the Framework of Sustainable Development establishes the legal framework for disaster prevention and risk management, including for climatic risks and for climate-related fields such as flooding and forest fires.

To date, Algeria does not have any litigation listed.

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria achieved its independence in 1962, after more than a century of French rule, and is a semi-presidential republic, whose legal system is a mixture of French civil law and Islamic law.  The government is divided into Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches. The President, elected by direct and popular vote, every five years, serves as both the Chief Executive and the Commander in Chief. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who serves as the head of the Government. The constitution was enacted in 1963 and has been amended on a number of occasions, most recently in 2008. In May 2014, following President Abdelazziz Bouteflika’s re-election, the Government released a constitutional reform package.

The legislative authority is held and exercised by a bicameral Parliament composed of the Council of the Nation (the upper house or Senate) and the National People’s Assembly (the lower house). The Council of the Nation, first instituted in 1997, consists of 144 seats, one third of which are appointed by the President and the remaining two thirds are elected by indirect vote of the elected members of communal assemblies and wilayas (provinces). Members serve for six-year terms and half of the Council is renewed every three years. The last Council of the Nation election was in 2012, and the next anticipated election is 2017. The National People’s Assembly is currently 462 seats, up from 389 during the last term, all of which are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. The most recent National People’s Assembly election was 2012 and the next anticipated election is in 2017.

Laws are first put forth by the National People’s Assembly and must be adopted by both houses; although the Council of the Nation has the absolute power to block the Legislative process, it neither has the authority to initiate legislation nor amend it. Prior to adoption, a bill is first successively debated in the National People’s Assembly then the Council of the Nation.  Bills are adopted by a majority of three quarters of the members. In the event of a disagreement among the houses, a joint committee is created, composed of members of both houses, to propose a revised text, which is then subject to the approval of both houses and is not amendable.

When the National People’s Assembly is in recess, the President can legislate by ordinance; however, the President must present the text of the order/decree to both houses during the next session for approval. Ordinances not approved by both houses are considered obsolete. Presidential decrees do not have to be approved by both houses during a presidentially declared ‘state of emergency’. Algeria operated under a ‘state of emergency’ for 19 years, until it was officially lifted in February 2011.

Last modified 23 August, 2017